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Confucianism -> Liji -> Ji Tong -> 26

For the sacrifices (in the ancestral temple) there were the four seasons.
礿 That in spring was called yue;
that in summer, di;
that in autumn, chang;
and that in winter, zheng.
礿The yue and di
expressed the idea in the bright and expanding (course of nature);
the chang and zheng,
that in the sombre and contracting (course).
The di showed the former in its fullest development,
and the chang showed the latter in the same.
Hence it is said, 'There is nothing more important than the di and chang.'
:“。” Anciently, at the di sacrifice, they conferred rank, and bestowed robes - acting according to the idea in the bright and expanding (course); and at the khang they gave out fields and homesteads, and issued the rules of autumn-work - acting according to the idea in the sombre and contracting (course). Hence it is said in the Record, 'On the day of the chang sacrifice they gave forth (the stores of) the ruler's house;' showing how rewards (were then given). When the plants were cut down, the punishment of branding might be inflicted. Before the rules of autumn-work were issued, the people did not dare to cut down the grass. Hence it is said that 'the ideas in the di and chang are great, and lie at the, foundation of the government of a state; and should by all means be known.' It is for the ruler to know clearly those ideas, and for the minister to be able to execute (what they require).
The ruler who does not know the ideas is not complete, and the minister who cannot carry them into execution is not complete.


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