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Daoism -> Zhuangzi -> Inner Chapters -> The Adjustment of Controversies -> 6

By means of a finger (of my own) to illustrate that the finger (of another) is not a finger
is not so good a plan as to illustrate that it is not so by means of what is (acknowledged to be) not a finger;
and by means of (what I call) a horse to illustrate that (what another calls) a horse is not so,
is not so good a plan as to illustrate that it is not a horse, by means of what is (acknowledged to be) not a horse.
(All things in) heaven and earth
may be (dealt with as) a finger;
(each of) their myriads
may be (dealt with as) a horse.
Does a thing seem so to me? (I say that) it is so. Does it seem not so to me? (I say that) it is not so.
A path is formed by (constant) treading on the ground.
A thing is called by its name through the (constant) application of the name to it.
惡乎How is it so?
It is so because it is so.
惡乎How is it not so?
It is not so, because it is not so.
Everything has its inherent character and its proper capability.
There is nothing which has not these.
Therefore, this being so, if we take a stalk of grain and a (large) pillar,
西施 a loathsome (leper) and (a beauty like) Xi Shi,
things large and things insecure, things crafty and things strange;
they may in the light of the Dao all be reduced to the same category (of opinion about them).
It was separation that led to completion; from completion ensued dissolution.
But all things, without regard to their completion and dissolution,
may again be comprehended in their unity
- it is only the far reaching in thought who know how to comprehend them in this unity.
This being so, let us give up our devotion to our own views, and occupy ourselves with the ordinary views.
These ordinary views
are grounded on the use of things.
(The study of that) use leads to the comprehensive judgment,
and that judgment secures the success (of the inquiry).
That success gained, we are near (to the object of our search),
and there we stop.
When we stop, and yet we do not know how it is so,
we have what is called the Dao.
When we toil our spirits and intelligence, obstinately determined (to establish our own view),
and do not know the agreement (which underlies it and the views of others),
we have what is called 'In the morning three.'
What is meant by that 'In the morning three?'
A keeper of monkeys, in giving them out their acorns,
(once) said,
。」 'In the morning I will give you three (measures) and in the evening four.'
This made them all angry,
and he said,
。」'Very well. In the morning I will give you four and in the evening three.'
The monkeys were all pleased.
His two proposals were substantially the same,
but the result of the one was to make the creatures angry, and of the other to make them pleased
- an illustration of the point I am insisting on.
聖人 Therefore the sagely man brings together a dispute in its affirmations and denials,
and rests in the equal fashioning of Heaven.
Both sides of the question are admissible.


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