Follow us on Facebook to receive important updates Follow us on Twitter to receive important updates Follow us on's microblogging site to receive important updates Follow us on Douban to receive important updates
Chinese Text Project
Back Forward
Daoism -> Zhuangzi -> Outer Chapters -> The Way of Heaven -> 9.2

桓公Duke Huan, seated above in his hall, was (once) reading a book,
and the wheelwright Bian was making a wheel below it.
Laying aside his hammer and chisel, Bian went up the steps,
桓公 and said,
?」 'I venture to ask your Grace what words you are reading?'
:「聖人。」The duke said, 'The words of the sages.'
:「聖人?」'Are those sages alive?' Bian continued.
:「。」'They are dead,' was the reply.
:「'Then,' said the other, 'what you, my Ruler, are reading
!」 are only the dregs and sediments of those old men.'
桓公:「寡人The duke said, 'How should you, a wheelwright, have anything to say about the book which I am reading?
If you can explain yourself, very well;
。」if you cannot, you shall, die!'
The wheelwright said,
'Your servant will look at the thing from the point of view of his own art.
In making a wheel,
if I proceed gently, that is pleasant enough, but the workmanship is not strong;
if I proceed violently, that is toilsome and the joinings do not fit.
If the movements of my hand are neither (too) gentle nor (too) violent,
the idea in my mind is realised.
But I cannot tell (how to do this) by word of mouth;
there is a knack in it.
I cannot teach the knack to my son,
nor can my son learn it from me.
Thus it is that I am in my seventieth year, and am (still) making wheels in my old age.
But these ancients, and what it was not possible for them to convey, are dead and gone: so then what you, my Ruler, are reading is but their dregs and sediments!

Enjoy this site? Please help.Site design and content copyright 2006-2022. When quoting or citing information from this site, please link to the corresponding page or to Please note that the use of automatic download software on this site is strictly prohibited, and that users of such software are automatically banned without warning to save bandwidth. 沪ICP备09015720号-3Comments? Suggestions? Please raise them here.