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中國哲學書電子化計劃

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字典出處:宋本廣韻: 頁308第24 頁422第48 康熙字典: 頁76第10 辭海: 卷2頁8101第 GSR: 第35.a 漢語大字典: 卷1頁0007第01
表面結構:上:,下:。 Component of: 𢩹 𣲉 𠀝 𫰈 𨑜 𪨢 𠧗 𠮴 𪵩 𢇗 𫇥 𢗄 𫠧 𠀨 𫡲 𬀧 [More]
國語發音:xià ㄒㄧㄚˋ
粵語發音:haa5 haa6
唐代發音:hà hǎ
宋本廣韻:廣韻·上聲··》下:賤也,去也,後也,底也,降也。胡雅切,四。
廣韻·去聲··》下:行下。又胡雅切。
康熙字典:康熙字典·一部·》下:〔古文〕丅𠄟《廣韻》胡雅切《集韻》《韻會》《正韻》亥雅切,𡘋遐上聲。在下之下,對上之稱。《易·乾·文言》本乎地者親下。又《說文》底也。《玉篇》後也。又賤也。又《儀禮·士相見禮》始見于君,執摯至下。《鄭註》下謂君所。《賈疏》不言所而言下者。凡臣視袷已下,故言下也。又《集韻》《韻會》𡘋亥駕切,遐去聲。《正韻》降也,自上而下也。《易·屯卦》以貴下賤。《詩序》君能下下。又《爾雅·釋詁》下,落也。《郉疏》下者,自上而落也。草曰零,木曰落。又去也。《周禮·夏官·司士》歲登,下其損益之數。又《韻補》叶後五切,音戶。《·召南》于以奠之,宗室牖下。與女叶。《吳棫曰》毛詩下字一十有七,陸德明皆此讀。《𨻰第·古音考》與吳同。又叶胡佐切,音賀。《曹丕·寡婦賦》風至兮淸厲,隂雲曀兮雨未下。伏枕兮忘寐,逮乎朝兮起坐。
考證:〔《爾雅·釋訓》下,落也。〕謹照原書釋訓改釋詁。
反切:胡雅 (《廣韻·上聲··》) 胡駕 (《廣韻·去聲··》) 胡雅 (《廣韻·去聲··》)
英文翻譯:under, underneath, below; down; inferior; bring down

CTP Dictionary


下士
xià shì ㄒㄧㄚˋ ㄕˋ (1): 古代官階之一。周代有上士、中士、下士。 "Officer of the lowest grade", official title used in the Zhou dynasty.
孟子·萬章下》:大國地方百里,君十卿祿,卿祿四大夫,大夫倍上士,上士倍中士,中士倍下士下士與庶人在官者同祿,祿足以代其耕也。
In a great State, where the territory was a hundred li square, the ruler had ten times as much income as his Chief ministers; a Chief minister four times as much as a Great officer; a Great officer twice as much as a scholar of the first class; a scholar of the first class twice as much as one of the middle; a scholar of the middle class twice as much as one of the lowest; the scholars of the lowest class, and such of the common people as were employed about the government offices, had for their emolument as much as was equal to what they would have made by tilling the fields.
禮記·王制》:諸侯之上大夫卿、下大夫、上士、中士、下士,凡五等。
There were (also), in the feudal states, Great officers of the highest grade - the ministers; and Great officers of the lowest grade; officers of the highest, the middle, and the lowest grades - in all, five gradations (of office).

下大夫
xià ㄒㄧㄚˋ ㄉㄚˋ ㄈㄨ : 古代官階之一。周代有上大夫、下大夫。 "Great officer of the lowest grade", official title used in the Zhou dynasty.
禮記·王制》:諸侯之上大夫卿、下大夫、上士、中士、下士,凡五等。
There were (also), in the feudal states, Great officers of the highest grade - the ministers; and Great officers of the lowest grade; officers of the highest, the middle, and the lowest grades - in all, five gradations (of office).

原典出處

論語·八佾》:揖讓而升,而飲,其爭也君子。
But he bows complaisantly to his competitors; thus he ascends the hall, descends, and exacts the forfeit of drinking. In his contention, he is still the Junzi.
孟子·盡心下》:征者上伐也,敵國不相征也。
"Correction" is when the supreme authority punishes its subjects by force of arms. Hostile States do not correct one another.
禮記·緇衣》:子曰:「上人疑則百姓惑,難知則君長勞。」
The Master said, "when the highest among men has doubts and perplexities, the common people go astray. When (the ministers) below him are difficult to be understood, the toil of the ruler is prolonged."
孝經·事君》:子曰:「君子之事上也,進思盡忠,退思補過,將順其美,匡救其惡,故上能相親也。」
The Master said, "The superior man serves his ruler in such a way that, when at court in his presence, his thought is how to discharge his loyal duty to the utmost, and when he retires from it, his thought is how to amend his errors. He carries out with deference the measures springing from his excellent qualities and rectifies him (only) to save him from what are evil. Hence, as the superior and inferior, they are able to have an affection for each other."
揚子法言·》:立政鼓眾,動化天,莫尚於中和。
In establishing government, rousing the multitude, and influencing the world, nothing is superior to the harmony of the mean.
墨子·經上》:賞,上報之功也。
Shang (reward) is requital from above for achievement below.
莊子·逍遙遊》:其視也亦若是,則已矣。
If one were looking down (from above), the very same appearance would just meet his view.
道德經》:皆知美之為美,斯惡已。
All in the world know the beauty of the beautiful, and in doing this they have (the idea of) what ugliness is.
商君書·更法》:今吾欲變法以治,更禮以教百姓,恐天之議我也。
I intend, now, to alter the laws, so as to obtain orderly government, and to reform the rites, so as to teach the people; but I am afraid the empire will criticize me.
孫子兵法·謀攻》:故上兵伐謀,其次伐交,其次伐兵,其攻城。
Thus the highest form of generalship is to balk the enemy's plans; the next best is to prevent the junction of the enemy's forces; the next in order is to attack the enemy's army in the field; and the worst policy of all is to besiege walled cities.
荀子·大略》:國法禁拾遺,惡民之串以無分得也,有夫分義,則容天而治。
說苑·君道》:屢省考績,以臨臣
春秋繁露·玉杯》:所以示天廢臣子之節,其惡之大若此也。
韓詩外傳·卷一》:而好干上,嗜慾不厭,求索不止者,刑共殺之。
大戴禮記·主言》:曾子懼,肅然摳衣席曰:「弟子知其不孫也,得夫子之間也難,是以敢問也。」
白虎通德論·》:尚書》曰:「天子作民父母,以為天王。
新書·脩政語下》:政曰:治國之道,上忠於主,而中敬其士,而愛其民。
新序·善謀下》:留侯曰:「始上數在困急之中,幸用臣,今天安定,以愛幼欲易太子骨肉間。」
中論·治學》:亟聞天之大言,則志益廣。
孔子家語·相魯》:孔子對曰:「雖天可乎!」
潛夫論·務本》:忠正以事君,信法以理,所以居官也。
論衡·命義》:行惡者禍隨而至,而盜跖、莊蹻,橫行天,聚黨數千,攻奪人物,斷斬人身,無道甚矣,宜遇其禍,乃以壽終。
太玄經·》:上九,崇崇高山,有川波其,人有輯航,可與過其。
風俗通義》:楊雄好之,天孝廉、衛卒交會,周章質問,以次注續,二十七年,爾乃治正,凡九千字,其所發明,猶未若《爾雅》之閎麗也,張竦以為懸諸日月不刊之書。
孔叢子·廣義》:上淫曰烝,淫曰報,旁淫曰通。
申鑒·政體》:百姓上睹利害之存乎己也,故肅恭其心,慎脩其行,內不忒惑,外無異望,慮其暏去徼倖,無罪過不憂懼,請謁無所聽,財賂無所用,則民志平矣。
忠經·天地神明章》:昔在至理,上一德,以徵天休,忠之道也。
素書·正道章》:德足以懷遠,信足以一異,義足以得眾,才足以鑒古,明足以照,此人之俊也。
新語·道基》:人民,野居穴處,未有室屋,則與禽獸同域。
獨斷·卷上》:漢天子正號曰「皇帝」,自稱曰「朕」,臣民稱之曰「陛」,其言曰「制詔」,史官記事曰「上」。
蔡中郎集·獨斷》:公侯三梁,卿大夫、尚書、博士兩梁,千石、六百石以一梁。
魯勝墨辯注敘》:同異生是非,是非生吉凶,取辯於一物,而原極天之汙隆,名之至也。
列子·天瑞》:清輕者上為天,濁重者為地,沖和氣者為人。
鶡冠子·著希》:賢人之潛亂世也,上有隨君,無直辭,君有驕行,民多諱言。
文子·道原》:是故疾而不搖,遠而不勞,四支不動,聰明不損,而照明天者,執道之要,觀無窮之地。
文始真經·一宇》:關尹子曰:「方術之在天多矣。」
列仙傳·赤松子》:往往至崑崙山上,常止西王母石室中,隨風雨上
鬻子》:昔者五帝之治天也,其道昭昭若日月之明然,若以晝代夜然。
老子河上公章句》:上化清靜,無貪人。
韓非子·初見秦》:臣聞天陰燕陽魏,連荊固齊,收韓而成從,將西面以與秦強為難,臣竊笑之。
申不害·大體》:故善為主者,倚於愚,立於不盈,設於不敢,藏於無事,竄端匿疏,示天無為。

您可以參考該字詞在本站先秦兩漢漢代之後原典中之出處。


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