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中国哲学书电子化计划
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字典出处:宋本广韵: 页308第24 页422第48 康熙字典: 页76第10 辞海: 卷2页8101第 GSR: 第35.a 汉语大字典: 卷1页0007第01
表面结构:上:,下:。 Component of: 𬽥 𭖄 𭘃 𣲉 𠀝 𬻁 𫰈 𨑜 𪨢 𠧗 𠮴 𪵩 𢇗 𫇥 𢗄 𢩹 [More]
国语发音:xià ㄒㄧㄚˋ
粤语发音:haa5 haa6
唐代发音:hà hǎ
宋本广韵:广韵·上声··》下:贱也,去也,后也,底也,降也。胡雅切,四。
广韵·去声··》下:行下。又胡雅切。
康熙字典:康熙字典·一部·》下:〔古文〕丅𠄟《广韵》胡雅切《集韵》《韵会》《正韵》亥雅切,𡘋遐上声。在下之下,对上之称。《易·乾·文言》本乎地者亲下。又《说文》底也。《玉篇》后也。又贱也。又《仪礼·士相见礼》始见于君,执挚至下。《郑注》下谓君所。《贾疏》不言所而言下者。凡臣视袷已下,故言下也。又《集韵》《韵会》𡘋亥驾切,遐去声。《正韵》降也,自上而下也。《易·屯卦》以贵下贱。《诗序》君能下下。又《尔雅·释诂》下,落也。《郉疏》下者,自上而落也。草曰零,木曰落。又去也。《周礼·夏官·司士》岁登,下其损益之数。又《韵补》叶后五切,音户。《·召南》于以奠之,宗室牖下。与女叶。《吴棫曰》毛诗下字一十有七,陆德明皆此读。《𨻰第·古音考》与吴同。又叶胡佐切,音贺。《曹丕·寡妇赋》风至兮淸厉,隂云曀兮雨未下。伏枕兮忘寐,逮乎朝兮起坐。
考证:〔《尔雅·释训》下,落也。〕谨照原书释训改释诂。
反切:胡雅 (《广韵·上声··》) 胡驾 (《广韵·去声··》) 胡雅 (《广韵·去声··》)
英文翻譯:under, underneath, below; down; inferior; bring down

CTP Dictionary


下士
xià shì ㄒㄧㄚˋ ㄕˋ (1): 古代官阶之一。周代有上士、中士、下士。 "Officer of the lowest grade", official title used in the Zhou dynasty.
孟子·万章下》:大国地方百里,君十卿禄,卿禄四大夫,大夫倍上士,上士倍中士,中士倍下士下士与庶人在官者同禄,禄足以代其耕也。
In a great State, where the territory was a hundred li square, the ruler had ten times as much income as his Chief ministers; a Chief minister four times as much as a Great officer; a Great officer twice as much as a scholar of the first class; a scholar of the first class twice as much as one of the middle; a scholar of the middle class twice as much as one of the lowest; the scholars of the lowest class, and such of the common people as were employed about the government offices, had for their emolument as much as was equal to what they would have made by tilling the fields.
礼记·王制》:诸侯之上大夫卿、下大夫、上士、中士、下士,凡五等。
There were (also), in the feudal states, Great officers of the highest grade - the ministers; and Great officers of the lowest grade; officers of the highest, the middle, and the lowest grades - in all, five gradations (of office).

下大夫
xià ㄒㄧㄚˋ ㄉㄚˋ ㄈㄨ : 古代官阶之一。周代有上大夫、下大夫。 "Great officer of the lowest grade", official title used in the Zhou dynasty.
礼记·王制》:诸侯之上大夫卿、下大夫、上士、中士、下士,凡五等。
There were (also), in the feudal states, Great officers of the highest grade - the ministers; and Great officers of the lowest grade; officers of the highest, the middle, and the lowest grades - in all, five gradations (of office).

原典出处

论语·八佾》:揖让而升,而饮,其争也君子。
But he bows complaisantly to his competitors; thus he ascends the hall, descends, and exacts the forfeit of drinking. In his contention, he is still the Junzi.
孟子·尽心下》:征者上伐也,敌国不相征也。
"Correction" is when the supreme authority punishes its subjects by force of arms. Hostile States do not correct one another.
礼记·缁衣》:子曰:“上人疑则百姓惑,难知则君长劳。”
The Master said, "when the highest among men has doubts and perplexities, the common people go astray. When (the ministers) below him are difficult to be understood, the toil of the ruler is prolonged."
孝经·事君》:子曰:“君子之事上也,进思尽忠,退思补过,将顺其美,匡救其恶,故上能相亲也。”
The Master said, "The superior man serves his ruler in such a way that, when at court in his presence, his thought is how to discharge his loyal duty to the utmost, and when he retires from it, his thought is how to amend his errors. He carries out with deference the measures springing from his excellent qualities and rectifies him (only) to save him from what are evil. Hence, as the superior and inferior, they are able to have an affection for each other."
扬子法言·》:立政鼓众,动化天,莫尚于中和。
In establishing government, rousing the multitude, and influencing the world, nothing is superior to the harmony of the mean.
墨子·经上》:赏,上报之功也。
Shang (reward) is requital from above for achievement below.
庄子·逍遥游》:其视也亦若是,则已矣。
If one were looking down (from above), the very same appearance would just meet his view.
道德经》:皆知美之为美,斯恶已。
All in the world know the beauty of the beautiful, and in doing this they have (the idea of) what ugliness is.
商君书·更法》:今吾欲变法以治,更礼以教百姓,恐天之议我也。
I intend, now, to alter the laws, so as to obtain orderly government, and to reform the rites, so as to teach the people; but I am afraid the empire will criticize me.
孙子兵法·谋攻》:故上兵伐谋,其次伐交,其次伐兵,其攻城。
Thus the highest form of generalship is to balk the enemy's plans; the next best is to prevent the junction of the enemy's forces; the next in order is to attack the enemy's army in the field; and the worst policy of all is to besiege walled cities.
荀子·大略》:国法禁拾遗,恶民之串以无分得也,有夫分义,则容天而治。
说苑·君道》:屡省考绩,以临臣
春秋繁露·玉杯》:所以示天废臣子之节,其恶之大若此也。
韩诗外传·卷一》:而好干上,嗜欲不厌,求索不止者,刑共杀之。
大戴礼记·主言》:曾子惧,肃然抠衣席曰:“弟子知其不孙也,得夫子之间也难,是以敢问也。”
白虎通德论·》:尚书》曰:“天子作民父母,以为天王。
新书·修政语下》:政曰:治国之道,上忠于主,而中敬其士,而爱其民。
新序·善谋下》:留侯曰:“始上数在困急之中,幸用臣,今天安定,以爱幼欲易太子骨肉间。”
中论·治学》:亟闻天之大言,则志益广。
孔子家语·相鲁》:孔子对曰:“虽天可乎!”
潜夫论·务本》:忠正以事君,信法以理,所以居官也。
论衡·命义》:行恶者祸随而至,而盗跖、庄蹻,横行天,聚党数千,攻夺人物,断斩人身,无道甚矣,宜遇其祸,乃以寿终。
太玄经·》:上九,崇崇高山,有川波其,人有辑航,可与过其。
风俗通义》:杨雄好之,天孝廉、卫卒交会,周章质问,以次注续,二十七年,尔乃治正,凡九千字,其所发明,犹未若《尔雅》之闳丽也,张竦以为悬诸日月不刊之书。
孔丛子·广义》:上淫曰烝,淫曰报,旁淫曰通。
申鉴·政体》:百姓上睹利害之存乎己也,故肃恭其心,慎修其行,内不忒惑,外无异望,虑其暏去徼幸,无罪过不忧惧,请谒无所听,财赂无所用,则民志平矣。
忠经·天地神明章》:昔在至理,上一德,以徵天休,忠之道也。
素书·正道章》:德足以怀远,信足以一异,义足以得众,才足以鉴古,明足以照,此人之俊也。
新语·道基》:人民,野居穴处,未有室屋,则与禽兽同域。
独断·卷上》:汉天子正号曰“皇帝”,自称曰“朕”,臣民称之曰“陛”,其言曰“制诏”,史官记事曰“上”。
蔡中郎集·独断》:公侯三梁,卿大夫、尚书、博士两梁,千石、六百石以一梁。
鲁胜墨辩注叙》:同异生是非,是非生吉凶,取辩于一物,而原极天之污隆,名之至也。
列子·天瑞》:清轻者上为天,浊重者为地,冲和气者为人。
鶡冠子·著希》:贤人之潜乱世也,上有随君,无直辞,君有骄行,民多讳言。
文子·道原》:是故疾而不摇,远而不劳,四支不动,聪明不损,而照明天者,执道之要,观无穷之地。
文始真经·一宇》:关尹子曰:“方术之在天多矣。”
列仙传·赤松子》:往往至昆仑山上,常止西王母石室中,随风雨上
鬻子》:昔者五帝之治天也,其道昭昭若日月之明然,若以昼代夜然。
老子河上公章句》:上化清静,无贪人。
韩非子·初见秦》:臣闻天阴燕阳魏,连荆固齐,收韩而成从,将西面以与秦强为难,臣窃笑之。
申不害·大体》:故善为主者,倚于愚,立于不盈,设于不敢,藏于无事,窜端匿疏,示天无为。

您可以参考该字词在本站先秦两汉汉代之后原典中之出处。


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