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中国哲学书电子化计划
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法家 -> 商君书 -> 修权 -> 1

Orderly government is brought about in a state by three things.
The first is law,
the second good faith,
and the third right standards.
Law is exercised in common by the prince and his ministers.
Good faith is established in common by the prince and his ministers.
The right standard is fixed by the prince alone.
If a ruler of men fails to observe it,
there is danger;
if prince and ministers neglect the law and act according to their own self-interest,
disorder is the inevitable result.
Therefore if law is established, rights and duties are made clear,
and self-interest does not harm the law,
then there is orderly government.
If the fixing of the right standard is decided by the prince alone,
there is prestige.
If the people have faith in his rewards, then their activities will achieve results,
and if they have faith in his penalties, then wickedness will have no starting point.
Only an intelligent ruler loves right standards and values good faith, and will not, for the sake of self-interest, harm the law.
For if he speaks many liberal words but cuts down his rewards,
then his subjects will not be of service;
and if he issues one severe order after another, but does not apply the penalties,
people will despise the death-penalty.
In general, rewards are a civil measure
and penalties a military.
Civil and military measures are the summary of the law.
Therefore an intelligent ruler places reliance on the law;
(an intelligent ruler), if things are not kept hidden from him, is called intelligent,
and if he is not deceived, is called perspicacious.
Therefore he benefits by giving liberal rewards,
and by making penalties severe, he ensures that he is feared.
He does not neglect those that are distant,
nor does he run counter to those that are near.
Thus ministers will not hide things from their ruler, nor will inferiors deceive their superiors.


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