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中国哲学书电子化计划
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法家 -> 商君书 -> 修权 -> 2

Those who are engaged in governing, in the world, chiefly dismiss the law and place reliance on private appraisal, and this is what brings disorder in a state.
The early kings hung up scales with standard weights,
and fixed the length of feet and inches,
and to the present day these are followed as models because their divisions were clear.
Now dismissing standard scales and yet deciding weight,
or abolishing feet and inches and yet forming an opinion about length
- even an intelligent merchant would not apply this system,
because it would lack definiteness.
Now, if the back is turned on models and measures, and reliance is placed on private appraisal, in all those cases there would be a lack of definiteness.
Only a Yao would be able to judge knowledge and ability, worth or unworth without a model.
But the world does not consist exclusively of Yaos!
Therefore, the ancient kings understood that no reliance should be placed on individual opinions or biassed approval,
so they set up models and made the distinctions clear.
Those who fulfilled the standard were rewarded,
those who harmed the public interest were punished.
The standards for rewards and punishments were not wrong in their appraisals, and therefore people did not dispute them.
But if the bestowal of office and the granting of rank
are not carried out according to the labour borne,
then loyal ministers have no advancement;
and if in awarding rewards and giving emoluments
the respective merits are not weighed,
then fighting soldiers will not enter his service.


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