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中国哲学书电子化计划
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Of old, in the times of the Great and Illustrious Ruler, people found their livelihood by cutting trees and slaying animals; the population was sparse, and trees and animals numerous.
黄帝In the times of Huang-di, neither young animals nor eggs were taken; the officials had no provisions, and when the people died, they were not allowed to use outer coffins.
These measures were not the same,
but that they both attained supremacy was due to the fact that the times in which they lived were different.
神农 In the times of Shen-nong,
men ploughed to obtain food,
and women wove to obtain clothing.
Without the application of punishments or governmental measures, order prevailed;
without the raising of mailed soldiers, he reigned supreme.
神农After Shen-nong had died, the weak were conquered by force and the few oppressed by the many.
黄帝Therefore Huang-di created the ideas of prince and minister, of superior and inferior,
the rites between father and son, between elder and younger brothers,
the union between husband and wife, and between consort and mate.
At home, he applied sword and saw,
and abroad he used mailed soldiers;
this was because the times had changed.
神农黄帝Looking at it from this point of view, Shen-nong is not higher than Huang-di, but the reason that his name was honoured was because he suited his time.
Therefore, if by war one wishes to abolish war,
even war is permissible;
if by killing one wants to abolish killing,
even killing is permissible;
if by punishments one wishes to abolish punishments,
even heavy punishments are permissible.


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