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中國哲學書電子化計劃
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墨家 -> 墨子 -> 卷二 -> 尚賢中 -> 7

使And, the ancient sage-kings in exalting the virtuous and employing the capable in government were following the ways of Heaven.
Even Heaven does not discriminate among the poor and the rich, the honourable and the humble, the distant and the near, and the related and the unrelated (to those in power). The virtuous were promoted and exalted;
the vicious were kept back and banished.
Now, who were those that, possessing wealth and position,
still strove after virtues and were rewarded ?
They were the sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, namely, Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen and Wu (12).
How were they rewarded?
天下 When they governed the empire,
they loved all the people universally
and benefited them,
天下and led them in doing honour to Heaven and service to the spirits. As they loved and benefited the people,
Heaven and the spirits rewarded them,
天子 appointing them to be Sons of Heaven,
and parents of the people.
』,And, thereupon people praised them, calling them sage-kings
even unto this day.
These then were those that, possessing wealth and position,
still strove after virtues and were rewarded.
Now, who were those that, possessing wealth and position, yet practiced evil and were punished?
They were the wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, namely, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li.
How do we know they were those ?
天下When they governed the empire
they disliked all the people inclusively
and oppressed them
天下 and led them to curse Heaven and the spirits.
Oppressing and destroying the people,
they were punished by Heaven and the spirits;
使 their corpses were mangled and lacerated,
their children and grandchildren were scattered and dispersed,
their family hearths were extinguished
and descendants exterminated.
」,And, thereupon the people railed at them, calling them wicked kings
even unto this day.
These, then, are those that, possessing wealth and position, yet practised evil and were punished.
Now, who were those that were related (to the ruler) but not virtuous and were visited by punishment?
Count Gun was of direct royal descent
but had degenerated in the royal virtues.
So he was banished to the wilderness of Yu Yu
where (in the prison) light could not reach him,
neither did the emperor show any favour.
Such was he who was related but not virtuous and was visited by punishment.
使Now, who were those that were employed by Heaven because of their capability?
皋陶Yu, Ji, and Gao Tao were they.
How do we know that?
It is found in the " Penal Code of Lu," a book of an early king, thus:
"The Emperor (Yao) inquired among his subjects,
and complaints were made against the Miaos (barbarians)."
Again, "As the feudal lords have been appointed without insight,
even the widows and the widowers are not protected.
Dignity is revered only when it is accompanied with magnanimity;
enlightenment is respected only when it is accompanied with magnanimity.
Thereupon three chiefs were commissioned
to care for and consolate the people:
伯夷(1) Bo Yi delivered the laws and statutes
and taught therewith the people;
(2) Yu reduced the Flood and recovered the land,
and gave names to hills and rivers;
(3) Ji descended (from his rank) and sowed seeds
to encourage good farming.
The benefits of the achievements of these three chiefs
。』 all fell upon the people."
聖人This is to say that the three sages
were careful in speech,
vigilant in conduct,
penetrating in thought,
天下studying and planning for every detail and benefit of the world
--with this to do service to Heaven on high,
Heaven will bless their virtue;
to bestow it to the people below,
the people will be visited by its benefits
lasting beyond their lifetime.
Thus said the ancient kings:
"Now, this way,
天下when followed broadly to govern the world, will not be found to be too slender;
when followed narrowly, will not be too unwieldly;
。』when followed with discretion, will benefit the people beyond their lifetime."
Referring to it, the "Eulogy of Zhou" sings:
聖人"The virtue of the sage
天下shining upon the world is lofty as Heaven, wide as earth, high as the mountain,
unbreakable and infallible;
luminating as the sun,
brilliant as the moon,
。』 eternal with heaven and earth."
聖人This is to describe how enlightening and all-embracing, deep-rooted and, therefore, permanent is the virtue of the sage.
聖人Therefore the virtue of the sage is really inclusive of heaven and earth.


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