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Discussion -> Textual issues -> 牟宗三原「道」之误

2021-05-04 06:09:24牟宗三原「道」之误
Posted by: chunzai (chunzai)  牟宗三先生对《老子》道家的道的本体论和宇宙论非常精僻,但也有不当处:
    「「无名﹐天地之始」这一句是就万物的总称说的。把散开的万物一把抓﹐总起来名之曰天地。所以﹐天地是万物的总称。下一句「有名﹐万物之母。」是散开说。万物是散开说﹐是天地的散称。一是总称﹐一是散开﹐意义不同。」(牟宗三:老子《道德经》讲演录)
  愚以為,「無名﹐天地之始」並非「萬物的總稱」;「有名﹐萬物之母」也不是「萬物散開」。所谓「天地之始」和「萬物之母」是一個東西,就是「道」。它同時有這兩種屬性。
  「窈兮冥兮,其中有精」(二十一章)。
  「谷神不死,是谓玄牝」(第六章)。
  「道」是一種「精」、「谷神」,「即「精神」。「無」生「有」,此精生万物。《礼记•礼运》:「必本于太一,分而为天地,转而为阴阳,变而为四时。」疏:「太一者,谓天地未分混沌之元气也。」《淮南子•诠言》;「洞同天地混沌为朴,未造而成物,谓之太一。」
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