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Discussion -> Textual issues -> 孔子不懂《易》

2021-05-12 02:44:24孔子不懂《易》
Posted by: chunzai (chunzai)  《史记·孔子世家》载:「孔子晚而喜易,序彖、系、象、说卦、文言。读易,韦编三绝。曰:『假我数年,若是,我于《易》则彬彬矣。』」《汉书·儒林传》亦谓孔子「盖晚而好《易》,读之韦编三绝而为之传」。东汉时魏伯阳《周易参同契》也说:「夫子庶圣雄,《十翼》以辅之」。我们再看《论语》却并非如此:
    子曰:「[若]加我数年,五十以学《易》,可以无大过矣。」
  ※:显然是夫子晚年虚拟语气开的玩笑,根本不懂《易》!而且毫无兴趣。《易》在春秋时还仅是卜筮答案,是当时社会上广为盛行流传的实用的迷信,属于术,无「理」可言。子不语怪力乱神,当然不会对占卦算命感兴趣。试分析《论语 》几段关于《易》的文字:
      子曰:「南人有言曰:『人而无恒不可以作巫医。』
    善夫!不恒其德,或承之羞。」
      子曰:「不占而已矣。」(《子路》)
  ※:孔子在此仅模糊地说「南人」。「人而無恒」与「不恒其德」很相似,在这样的场合下,孔子竟不直接引《易》原句或记错,显然对《易》不熟。「不恒其德,或承之羞」出自《易》恒卦第三爻,爻辞:「九三:不恒其德,或承之羞,贞吝。」从国王到农民,《易》在春秋非常流行,耳熟能详,影响非常大。但孔子在此引用,但并无占卜之意。最后「不占而已矣」,意谓如你无恒心,不作巫也罢。
      「子所雅言,诗、书、执礼,皆雅言也」
※:据传孔子研究《易》用尽精力,以至「韦编三绝」。为何雅言中不提《易》?可见平时根本不提《易》,不解《易》明矣,何来《十翼》?显然是后人伪托。如果真的有「韦编三绝」之功,《论语》此句在中之曰当加上「卜」。而且「志於道,據於德,依於仁,遊於藝」中当加「卜于《易》」。方妥。以「文,行,忠,信」四教外,再加《易》成五教。于「興於詩,立於禮,成於樂。」外还应加上「卜于《易》」。
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2021-05-13 17:50:13孔子不懂《易》
Posted by: fu_xiao管窺蠡測,難矣哉。
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2021-05-14 00:30:19孔子不懂《易》
Posted by: chunzai (chunzai)「《易》理」是汉人为了强调纲常主旋律的新形势造出来的
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