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Discussion -> Textual issues -> 攘無臂,扔無敵

2021-05-04 06:29:18攘無臂,扔無敵
Posted by: chunzai (chunzai)《老子》第六十九章
      用兵有言:「吾不敢為主而為客;不敢進寸而退尺。」
    是謂行無行、攘無臂、扔無敵、執無兵。禍莫大於輕敵,
    輕敵幾喪吾寶。故抗兵相若,哀者勝矣。
  對其中「攘無臂;扔無敵」似乎歷來模糊:
    王弼解:攘無臂,執無兵,扔無敵也,言無有與之抗也。
    河上公解:雖欲大怒,若無臂可攘也。雖欲仍引之,若無敵可仍也。
  皆模糊,特別對「攘無臂;扔無敵」沒有具體訓說。所以陳鼓應說:「這就是說,雖然有陣勢,卻像沒有陣勢可擺;雖然要奮臂,卻像沒有臂膀可舉;雖然面臨敵人,卻像沒有敵人可赴;雖然有兵器,卻像沒有兵器可持。」其中「沒有臂膀可舉」讓人忍俊。之所以如此,竊以為因為《老子》一文追求文字整齊和修辭效果,難免以辭害義;又非一人所為,固難免矛盾。這個句式在《老子》中其它例子還有如二十五章:「大曰逝,逝曰遠,遠曰反」。「人法地,地法天,天法道,」等。這句正常語序應為:「無行行;無攘臂;無扔敵;無執兵」,即行無列隊;不攘臂而怒;不扔敵;不執兵之意。
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