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Chinese Text Project
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Scope: Yue Ji Request type: Paragraph
Condition 1: References "莫其德音,其德克明" Matched:1.
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樂記 - Yue Ji

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《樂記》 Library Resources
[Also known as: "Record of music"]

42 樂記:
魏文侯問於子夏曰:「吾端冕而聽古樂,則唯恐臥;聽鄭衛之音,則不知倦。敢問:古樂之如彼何也?新樂之如此何也?」
Yue Ji:
The marquis Wen of Wei asked Zi-xia, saying, 'When in my square-cut dark robes and cap I listen to the ancient music, I am only afraid that I shall go to sleep. When I listen to the music of Kang and Wei, I do not feel tired; let me ask why I should feel so differently under the old and the new music.'
子夏對曰:「今夫古樂,進旅退旅,和正以廣。弦匏笙簧,會守拊鼓,始奏以文,復亂以武,治亂以相,訊疾以雅。君子於是語,於是道古,修身及家,平均天下。此古樂之發也。
Zi-xia replied, 'In the old music, (the performers) advance and retire all together; the music is harmonious, correct, and in large volume; the stringed instruments (above) and those made from gourd shells with the organs and their metal tongues (below), are all kept waiting for the striking of the drum. The music first strikes up at the sound of the drum; and when it ends, it is at the sound of the cymbals. The close of each part of the performance is regulated by the Xiang, and the rapidity of the motions by the Ya. In (all) this the superior man speaks of, and follows, the way of antiquity. The character is cultivated; the family is regulated; and peace and order are secured throughout the kingdom. This is the manner of the ancient music.
今夫新樂,進俯退俯,奸聲以濫,溺而不止;及優侏儒,糅雜子女,不知父子。樂終不可以語,不可以道古。此新樂之發也。今君之所問者樂也,所好者音也!夫樂者,與音相近而不同。」
'But now, in the new music, (the performers) advance and retire without any regular order; the music is corrupt to excess; there is no end to its vileness. Among the players there are dwarfs like monkeys, while boys and girls are mixed together, and there is no distinction between father and son. Such music can never be talked about, and cannot be said to be after the manner of antiquity. This is the fashion of the new music. What you ask about is music; and what you like is sound. Now music and sound are akin, but they are not the same.'
文侯曰:「敢問何如?」子夏對曰:「夫古者,天地順而四時當,民有德而五穀昌,疾疢不作而無妖祥,此之謂大當。然後聖人作為父子君臣,以為紀綱。紀綱既正,天下大定。天下大定,然後正六律,和五聲,弦歌詩頌,此之謂德音;德音之謂樂。《》云:『莫其德音,其德克明。克明克類,克長克君,王此大邦;克順克俾,俾於文王,其德靡悔。既受帝祉,施於孫子。』此之謂也。今君之所好者,其溺音乎?」
The marquis asked him to explain, and Zi-xia replied, 'In antiquity, Heaven and Earth acted according to their several natures, and the four seasons were what they ought to be. The people were virtuous, and all the cereals produced abundantly. There were no fevers or other diseases, and no apparitions or other prodigies. This was what we call "the period of great order." After this arose the sages, and set forth the duties between father and son, and between ruler and subject, for the guidance of society. When these guiding rules were thus correctly adjusted, all under heaven, there was a great tranquillity; after which they framed with exactness the six accords (upper and lower), and gave harmony to the five notes (of the scale), and the singing to the lutes of the odes and praise-songs; constituting what we call "the virtuous airs." Such virtuous airs constituted what we call "Music," as is declared in the Book of Poetry (III, i, ode 7, 4), 'Silently grew the fame of his virtue, His virtue was highly intelligent; Highly intelligent, and of rare discrimination; Able to lead, able to rule, To rule over this great country, Rendering a cordial submission, effecting a cordial union. When (the sway) came to king Wen, His virtue left nothing to be dissatisfied with. He received the blessing of God, And it was extended to his descendants." May I not say that what you love are the vile airs?'
文侯曰:「敢問溺音何從出也?」子夏對曰:「鄭音好濫淫志,宋音燕女溺志,衛音趨數煩志,齊音敖辟喬志;此四者皆淫於色而害於德,是以祭祀弗用也。《》云:『肅雍和鳴,先祖是聽。』夫肅肅,敬也;雍雍,和也。夫敬以和,何事不行?
The marquis said, "Let me ask where the vile airs come from?' Zi-xia replied, 'The airs of Zheng go to a wild excess, and debauch the mind; those of Song tell of slothful indulgence and women, and drown the mind; those of Wei are vehement and rapid, and perplex the mind; and those of Qi are violent and depraved, and make the mind arrogant. The airs of those four states all stimulate libidinous desire, and are injurious to virtue;--they should therefore not be used at sacrifices. It is said in the Book of Poetry (IV, i [Part ii], ode 5), "In solemn unison (the instruments) give forth their notes; Our ancestors will hearken to them." That solemn unison denotes the grave reverence and harmony of their notes - with reverence, blended with harmony, what is there that cannot be done?
為人君者謹其所好惡而已矣。君好之,則臣為之。上行之,則民從之。《》云:『誘民孔易』,此之謂也。」然後,聖人作為鞉、鼓、椌、楬、塤、篪,此六者德音之音也。然後鐘磬竽瑟以和之,干戚旄狄以舞之,此所以祭先王之廟也,所以獻酬酳酢也,所以官序貴賤各得其宜也,所以示後世有尊卑長幼之序也。
'A ruler has only to be careful of what he likes and dislikes. What the ruler likes, his ministers will practise; and what superiors do, their inferiors follow. This is the sentiment in the Book of Poetry (III, ii, ode 10, 6), "To lead the people is very easy." Seeing this, and after (the repose of the people was secured), the sages made hand-drums and drums, the stopper and the starter, the earthen whistle and the bamboo flute - the six instruments which produced the sounds of their virtuous airs. After these came the bell, the sounding-stone, the organ with thirty-six pipes, and the large lute, to be played in harmony with them; the shields, axes, ox-tails, and plumes, brandished by the pantomimes in time and tune. These they employed at the sacrifices in the temple of the former kings, at festivals in offering and receiving the pledge cup; in arranging the services of officers (in the temple) according to the rank due to each, as noble or mean, and in showing to future ages how they observed the order due to rank and to age.
鐘聲鏗,鏗以立號,號以立橫,橫以立武。君子聽鐘聲則思武臣。石聲磬,磬以立辨,辨以致死。君子聽磬聲則思死封疆之臣。絲聲哀,哀以立廉,廉以立志。君子聽琴瑟之聲則思志義之臣。竹聲濫,濫以立會,會以聚眾。君子聽竽笙簫管之聲,則思畜聚之臣。鼓鼙之聲讙,讙以立動,動以進眾。君子聽鼓鼙之聲,則思將帥之臣。君子之聽音,非聽其鏗槍而已也,彼亦有所合之也。
'The bells give out a clanging sound as a signal. The signal is recognised by all, and that recognition produces a martial enthusiasm. When the ruler hears the sound of the bell, he thinks of his officers of war. The sounding-stones give out a tinkling sound, as a summons to the exercise of discrimination. That discrimination may lead to the encountering of death. When the ruler hears the sounding-stone, he thinks of his officers who die in defence of his frontiers. The stringed instruments give out a melancholy sound, which produces the thought of purity and fidelity, and awakens the determination of the mind. When the ruler hears the sound of the lute and cithern, he thinks of his officers who are bent on righteousness. The instruments of bamboo give out a sound like that of overflowing waters, which suggests the idea of an assembly, the object of which is to collect the multitudes together. When the ruler hears the sound of his organs, pipes, and flutes, he thinks of his officers who gather the people together. The drums and tambours give out their loud volume of sound, which excites the idea of movement, and tends to the advancing of the host. When the ruler hears the sounds of his drums and tambours, he thinks of his leaders and commanders. When a superior man thus hears his musical instruments, he does not hear only the sounds which they emit. There are associated ideas which accompany these.'

Total 1 paragraphs. Page 1 of 1.