Follow us on Facebook to receive important updates Follow us on Twitter to receive important updates Follow us on sina.com's microblogging site to receive important updates Follow us on Douban to receive important updates
Chinese Text Project
Simplified Chinese version
Show translation:[None] [English]
Show statistics Edit searchSearch details:
Scope: Yue Ling Request type: Paragraph
Condition 1: Contains text "其祀户" Matched:3.
Total 3 paragraphs. Page 1 of 1.

《月令 - Yue Ling》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《月令》 Library Resources
[Also known as: "Proceedings of Government in the Different Months"]

1 月令:
孟春之月,日在营室,昏参中,旦尾中。其日甲乙。其帝大皞,其神句芒。其虫鳞。其音角,律中大蔟。其数八。其味酸,其臭膻。其祀户,祭先脾。
Yue Ling:
In the first month of spring the sun is in Shi, the star culminating at dusk being Shen, and that culminating at dawn Wei. Its days are jia and yi. Its divine ruler is Dai Hao, and the (attending) spirit is Gou-mang. Its creatures are the scaly. Its musical note is Jiao, and its pitch-tube is the Dai Cu. Its number is eight; its take is sour; its smell is rank. Its sacrifice is that at the door, and of the parts of the victim the spleen has the foremost place.

2 月令:
东风解冻,蛰虫始振,鱼上冰,獭祭鱼,鸿雁来。
Yue Ling:
The east winds resolve the cold. Creatures that have been torpid during the winter begin to move. The fishes rise up to the ice. Otters sacrifice fish. The wild geese make their appearance.

3 月令:
天子居青阳左个。乘鸾路,驾仓龙,载青旗,衣青衣,服仓玉,食麦与羊,其器疏以达。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the left of the Qing Yang (Fane); rides in the carriage with the phoenix (bells), drawn by the azure-dragon (horses), and carrying the green flag; wears the green robes, and the (pieces of) green jade (on his cap and at his girdle pendant). He eats wheat and mutton. The vessels which he uses are slightly carved, (to resemble) the shooting forth (of plants).

4 月令:
是月也,以立春。先立春三日,大史谒之天子曰:某日立春,盛德在木。天子乃齐。立春之日,天子亲帅三公、九卿、诸侯、大夫以迎春于东郊。还反,赏公卿、诸侯、大夫于朝。命相布德和令,行庆施惠,下及兆民。庆赐遂行,毋有不当。乃命大史守典奉法,司天日月星辰之行,宿离不贷,毋失经纪,以初为常。
Yue Ling:
In this month there takes place the inauguration of spring. Three days before this ceremony, the Grand recorder informs the son of Heaven, saying, 'On such and such a day is the inauguration of the spring. The energies of the season are fully seen in wood. On this the son of Heaven devotes himself to self-purification, and on the day he leads in person the three ducal ministers, his nine high ministers, the feudal princes (who are at court), and his Great officers, to meet the spring in the eastern suburb; and on their return, he rewards them all in the court. He charges his assistants to disseminate (lessons of) virtue, and harmonise the governmental orders, to give effect to the expressions of his satisfaction and bestow his favours; down to the millions of the people. Those expressions and gifts thereupon proceed, every one in proper (degree and direction). He also orders the Grand recorder to guard the statutes and maintain the laws, and (especially) to observe the motions in the heavens of the sun and moon, and of the zodiacal stars in which the conjunctions of these bodies take place, so that there should be no error as to where they rest and what they pass over; that there should be no failure in the record of all these things, according to the regular practice of early times.

5 月令:
是月也,天子乃以元日祈谷于上帝。乃择元辰,天子亲载耒耜,措之参保介之御间,帅三公、九卿、诸侯、大夫,躬耕帝藉。天子三推,三公五推,卿诸侯九推。反,执爵于大寝,三公、九卿、诸侯、大夫皆御,命曰:劳酒。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven on the first (hsin) day prays to God for a good year; and afterwards, the day of the first conjunction of the sun and moon having been chosen, with the handle and share of the plough in the carriage, placed between the man-at-arms who is its third occupant and the driver, he conducts his three ducal ministers, his nine high ministers, the feudal princes and his Great officers, all with their own hands to plough the field of God. The son of Heaven turns up three furrows, each of the ducal ministers five, and the other ministers and feudal princes nine. When they return, he takes in his hand a cup in the great chamber, all the others being in attendance on him and the Great officers, and says, 'Drink this cup of comfort after your toil.'

6 月令:
是月也,天气下降,地气上腾,天地和同,草木萌动。王命布农事,命田舍东郊,皆修封疆,审端经术。善相丘陵阪险原隰土地所宜,五谷所殖,以教道民,必躬亲之。田事既饬,先定准直,农乃不惑。
Yue Ling:
In this month the vapours of heaven descend and those of the earth ascend. Heaven and earth are in harmonious co-operation. All plants bud and grow. The king gives orders to set forward the business of husbandry. The inspectors of the fields are ordered to reside in the lands having an eastward exposure, and (see that) all repair the marches and divisions (of the o-round), and mark out clearly the paths and ditches. They must skilfully survey the mounds and rising grounds, the slopes and defiles, the plains and marshes, determining what the different lands are suitable for, and where the different grains will grow best. They must thus instruct and lead on the people, themselves also engaging in the tasks. The business of the fields being thus ordered, the guiding line is first put in requisition, and the husbandry is carried on without error.

7 月令:
是月也,命乐正入学习舞。乃修祭典。命祀山林川泽,牺牲毋用牝。禁止伐木。毋覆巢,毋杀孩虫、胎、夭、飞鸟。毋麑,毋卵。毋聚大众,毋置城郭。掩骼埋胔。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the chief director of Music to enter the college, and practise the dances (with his pupils). The canons of sacrifice are examined and set forth, and orders are given to sacrifice to the hills and forests, the streams and meres, care being taken not to use any female victims. Prohibitions are issued against cutting down trees. Nests should not be thrown down; unformed insects should not be killed, nor creatures in the Womb, nor very young creatures, nor birds just taking to the wing, nor fawns, nor should eggs be destroyed. No congregating of multitudes should be allowed, and no setting about the rearing of fortifications and walls. Skeletons should be covered up, and bones with the flesh attached to them buried.

8 月令:
是月也,不可以称兵,称兵必天殃。兵戎不起,不可从我始。毋变天之道,毋绝地之理,毋乱人之纪。
Yue Ling:
In this month no warlike operations should be undertaken; the undertaking of such is sure to be followed by calamities from Heaven. The not undertaking warlike operations means that they should not commence on our side. No change in the ways of heaven is allowed; nor any extinction of the principles of earth; nor any confounding of the bonds of men.

9 月令:
孟春行夏令,则雨水不时,草木蚤落,国时有恐。行秋令则其民大疫,猋风暴雨总至,藜莠蓬蒿并兴。行冬令则水潦为败,雪霜大挚,首种不入。
Yue Ling:
If in the first month of spring the governmental proceedings proper to summer were carried out, the rain would fall unseasonably, plants and trees would decay prematurely, and the states would be kept in continual fear. If the proceedings proper to autumn were carried out, there would be great pestilence among the people; boisterous winds would work their violence; rain would descend in torrents; orach, fescue, darnel, and southernwood would grow up together. If the proceedings proper to winter were carried out, pools of water would produce their destructive effects, snow and frost would prove very injurious, and the first sown seeds would not enter the ground.

10 月令:
仲春之月,日在奎,昏弧中,旦建星中。其日甲乙,其帝大皞,其神句芒。其虫鳞。其音角,律中夹钟。其数八。其味酸,其臭膻,其祀户,祭先脾。
Yue Ling:
In the second month of spring, the sun is in Kui, the star culminating at dusk being Hu, and that culminating at dawn Jian-xing. Its days are jia and yi. Its divine ruler is Dai Hao, the attending spirit is Gou-mang. Its creatures are the scaly. Its musical note is Jiao, and its pitch-tube is the Jia Zhong. Its number is eight; its taste is sour; its smell is rank. Its sacrifice is that at the door, and of the parts of the victim the spleen has the foremost place.

11 月令:
始雨水,桃始华,仓庚鸣,鹰化为鸠。
Yue Ling:
The rain begins to fall. The peach tree begins to blossom. The oriole sings. Hawks are transformed into doves.

12 月令:
天子居青阳大庙,乘鸾路,驾仓龙,载青旗,衣青衣,服仓玉,食麦与羊,其器疏以达。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the Qing Yang Grand Fane; rides in the carriage with the phoenix bells, drawn by the azure dragon-(horses), and bearing the green flag. He is dressed in the green robes, and wears the azure gems. He eats wheat and mutton. The vessels which he uses are slightly carved, (to resemble) the bursting forth (of nature).

13 月令:
是月也,安萌芽,养幼少,存诸孤。择元日,命民社。命有司省囹圄,去桎梏,毋肆掠,止狱讼。
Yue Ling:
In this month, they keep both the young buds and those more advanced from being disturbed; they nourish both the young animals and those not fully grown; they especially watch over all orphans. The fortunate day is chosen, and orders are given to the people to sacrifice at their altars to the spirits of the ground. Orders are given to the (proper) officers to examine the prisons; to remove fetters and handcuffs; that there shall be no unregulated infliction of the bastinado; and that efforts shall be made to stop criminal actions and litigations.

14 月令:
是月也,玄鸟至。至之日,以大牢祠于高禖。天子亲往,后妃帅九嫔御。乃礼天子所御,带以弓韣,授以弓矢,于高禖之前。
Yue Ling:
In this month the swallow makes its appearance. On the day of its arrival, the son of Heaven sacrifices to the first match-maker with a bull, a ram, and a boar. He goes to do so in person, with his queen and help-mates, attended by his nine ladies of honour. Peculiar courtesy is shown to those whom he has (lately) approached. Bow-cases have been brought, and a bow and arrows are given to each before (the altar of) the first match-maker.

15 月令:
是月也,日夜分。雷乃发声,始电,蛰虫咸动,启户始出。先雷三日,奋木铎以令兆民曰:雷将发声,有不戒其容止者,生子不备,必有凶灾。日夜分,则同度量,钧衡石,角斗甬,正权概。
Yue Ling:
In this month day and night are equal. Thunder utters its voice, and the lightning begins to be seen. Insects in their burrows are all in motion, opening their doors and beginning to come forth. Three days before the thunder, a bell with a wooden tongue is sounded, to give notice to all the people. 'The thunder,' it is said, 'is about to utter its voice. If any of you be not careful of your behaviour, you shall bring forth children incomplete; there are sure to be evils and calamities.' At the equinox they make uniform the measures of length and capacity; the weight of 30 catties, the steelyard, and the weight of 120 catties. They correct the peck and bushel, the steelyard weights and the bushel-scraper.

16 月令:
是月也,耕者少舍。乃修阖扇,寝庙毕备。毋作大事,以妨农之事。
Yue Ling:
In this month few of the husbandmen remain in their houses in the towns. They repair, however, their gates and doors, both of wood and wattles; and put their sleeping apartments and temples all in good repair. No great labours, which would interfere with the work of husbandry, should be undertaken.

17 月令:
是月也,毋竭川泽,毋漉陂池,毋焚山林。天子乃鲜羔开冰,先荐寝庙。上丁,命乐正习舞,释菜。天子乃帅三公、九卿、诸侯、大夫亲往视之。仲丁,又命乐正入学习舞。
Yue Ling:
In this month (the fishermen) should not let the streams and meres run dry, nor drain off all the water from the dams and ponds, (in order to catch all the fish), nor should (the hunters) fire the hills and forests. The son of Heaven at this time offers a lamb (to the ruler of cold), and opens the (reservoirs of) ice. Before (using it generally), they offer some in their principal apartment or in the ancestral temple. On the first ting day orders are given to the chief director of Music to exhibit the civil dances and unfold the offerings of vegetables (to the inventor of music). The son of Heaven, at the head of the three ducal ministers, his nine high ministers, the feudal princes (at court), and his Great officers, goes in person to see the ceremony. On the second ting day orders are given again to the same chief to enter the college, and practise music (with his pupils).

18 月令:
是月也,祀不用牺牲,用圭璧,更皮币。
Yue Ling:
In this month at the (smaller) services of supplication they do not use victims. They use offerings of jade, square and round, and instead (of victims) skins and pieces of silk.

19 月令:
仲春行秋令,则其国大水,寒气总至,寇戎来征。行冬令,则阳气不胜,麦乃不熟,民多相掠。行夏令,则国乃大旱,暖气早来,虫螟为害。
Yue Ling:
If in this second month of spring the governmental proceedings proper to autumn were observed, there would be great floods, in the states; cold airs would be constantly coming; and plundering attacks would be frequent. If those of winter were observed, the warm and genial airs would be insufficient; the wheat would not ripen; and raids and strifes would be rife among the people. If those of summer were observed, there would be great droughts among the people; the hot airs would come too early; and caterpillars and other insects would harm the grain.

20 月令:
季春之月,日在胃,昏七星中,旦牵牛中。其日甲乙。其帝大皞,其神句芒。其虫鳞。其音角,律中姑洗。其数八。其味酸,其臭膻。其祀户,祭先脾。
Yue Ling:
In the last month of spring, the sun is in Wei, the constellation culminating at dusk being Qi xing, and that culminating at dawn Qian-niu. Its days are jia and yi. Its divine ruler is Dai Hao, and the attending spirit is Gou-mang. Its creatures are the scaly. Its musical note is the Jiao, and its pitch-tube is the Gu Xian. Its number is eight. Its taste is sour. Its smell is rank. Its sacrifice is that at the door, and of the parts of the victim the spleen has the foremost place.

21 月令:
桐始华,田鼠化为鴽,虹始见,萍始生。
Yue Ling:
The Elaeococca begins to flower. Moles are transformed into quails. Rainbows begin to appear. Duckweed begins to grow.

22 月令:
天子居青阳右个,乘鸾路,驾仓龙,载青旗,衣青衣,服仓玉。食麦与羊,其器疏以达。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the right of the Qing Yang (Fane); rides in the carriage with the phoenix bells, drawn by the azure dragon-(horses), and bearing the green flag. He is dressed in the green robes, and wears the azure gems. He eats wheat and mutton. The vessels which he uses are slightly carved, (to resemble) the bursting forth (of nature).

23 月令:
是月也,天子乃荐鞠衣于先帝。命舟牧覆舟,五覆五反。乃告舟备具于天子焉,天子始乘舟。荐鲔于寝庙,乃为麦祈实。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven presents robes yellow as the young leaves of the mulberry tree to the ancient divine ruler (and his queen). Orders are given to the officer in charge of the boats to turn a boat bottom up. Five times he does so, and five times he turns it back again, after which he reports that it is ready for the son of Heaven, who then gets into it for the first time (this spring). He offers a snouted sturgeon (which he has caught) in the rear apartment of the ancestral temple, and also prays that the wheat may yield its produce.

24 月令:
是月也,生气方盛,阳气发泄,句者毕出,萌者尽达。不可以内。天子布德行惠,命有司发仓廪,赐贫穷,振乏绝,开府库,出币帛,周天下。勉诸侯,聘名士,礼贤者。
Yue Ling:
In this month the influences of life and growth are fully developed; and the warm and genial airs diffuse themselves. The crooked shoots are all put forth, and the buds are unfolded. Things do not admit of being restrained. The son of Heaven spreads his goodness abroad, and carries out his kindly promptings. He gives orders to the proper officers to distribute from his granaries and vaults, giving their contents to the poor and friendless, and to relieve the needy and destitute; and to open his treasuries and storehouses, and to send abroad through all the nation the silks and other articles for presents, thus stimulating the princes of states to encourage the resort to them of famous scholars and show courtesy to men of ability and virtue.

25 月令:
是月也,命司空曰:时雨将降,下水上腾,循行国邑,周视原野,修利堤防,道达沟渎,开通道路,毋有障塞。田猎罝罘、罗网、毕翳、喂兽之药,毋出九门。
Yue Ling:
In this month, he charges the superintendents of works, saying, 'The rains of the season will be coming down, and the waters beneath will be swelling up. Go in order over the states and visit the towns, inspecting everywhere the low and level grounds. Put the dykes and dams in good repair, clear the ditches and larger channels, and open all paths, allowing no obstruction to exist.' The nets used in hunting animals and birds, hand nets, archers' disguises, and injurious baits should not (in this month) issue from (any of) the nine gates.

26 月令:
是月也,命野虞毋伐桑柘。鸣鸠拂其羽,戴胜降于桑。具曲植籧筐。后妃齐戒,亲东乡躬桑。禁妇女毋观,省妇使以劝蚕事。蚕事既登,分茧称丝效功,以共郊庙之服,无有敢惰。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the foresters throughout the country not to allow the cutting down of the mulberry trees and silk-worm oaks. About these the cooing doves clap their wings, and the crested birds light on them . The trays and baskets with the stands (for the worms and cocoons) are got ready. The queen, after vigil and fasting, goes in person to the eastern fields to work on the mulberry trees. She orders the wives and younger women (of the palace) not to wear their ornamental dresses, and to suspend their woman's-work, thus stimulating them to attend to their business with the worms. When this has been completed, she apportions the cocoons, weighs out (afterwards) the silk, on which they go to work, to supply the robes for the solstitial and other great religious services, and for use in the ancestral temple. Not one is allowed to be idle.

27 月令:
是月也,命工师令百工审五库之量:金铁,皮革筋,角齿,羽箭干,脂胶丹漆,毋或不良。百工咸理,监工日号;毋悖于时,毋或作为淫巧以荡上心。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the chiefs of works, to charge the workmen of their various departments to inspect the materials in the five storehouses: those of iron and other metals; of skins and hides and sinews; of horn and ivory; of feathers, arrows and wood (for bows); and of grease, glue, cinnabar, and varnish. (They are to see) that all these things be good. The workmen then labour at their several tasks. (The chiefs) inspect their work, and daily give them their orders. They must not produce anything contrary to what the time requires; nor can they practise a licentious ingenuity, which would dissipate the minds of their superiors.

28 月令:
是月之末,择吉日,大合乐,天子乃率三公、九卿、诸侯、大夫亲往视之。
Yue Ling:
In the end of this month a fortunate day is chosen for a grand concert of music. The son of Heaven, at the head of the three ducal ministers, the nine high ministers, the feudal princes (at court), and his great officers, goes in person to witness it.

29 月令:
是月也,乃合累牛腾马,游牝于牧。牺牲驹犊,举,书其数。命国难,九门磔攘,以毕春气。
Yue Ling:
In this month they collect the large, heavy bulls, and fiery stallions, and send them forth to the females in the pasture grounds. They number and make a list of the animals fit for victims, with the foals and calves. Orders are given for the ceremonies against pestilence throughout the city; at the nine gates (also) animals are torn in pieces in deprecation (of the danger): to secure the full development of the (healthy) airs of the spring.

30 月令:
季春行冬令,则寒气时发,草木皆肃,国有大恐。行夏令,则民多疾疫,时雨不降,山林不收。行秋令,则天多沉阴,淫雨蚤降,兵革并起。
Yue Ling:
If, in this last month of spring, the governmental proceedings proper to winter were observed, cold airs would constantly be prevailing; all plants and trees would decay; and in the states there would be great terrors. If those proper to summer were observed, many of the people would suffer from pestilential diseases; the seasonable rains would not fall; and no produce would be derived from the mountains and heights. If those proper to autumn were observed, the sky would be full of moisture and gloom; excessive rains would fall early; and warlike movements would be everywhere arising.

31 月令:
孟夏之月,日在毕,昏翼中,旦婺女中。其日丙丁。其帝炎帝,其神祝融。其虫羽。其音徵,律中中吕。其数七。其味苦,其臭焦。其祀灶,祭先肺。
Yue Ling:
In the first month of summer, the sun is in Bi; the constellation culminating at dusk being Yi, and that culminating at dawn Wu-nu. Its days are bing and ding. Its divine ruler is Yan Di, and the (attending) spirit is Gu-rong. Its creatures are the feathered. Its musical note is Zhi, and its pitch-tube is the Zhong Lu. Its number is seven. Its taste is acrid. Its smell is that of things burning. Its sacrifice is that at the furnace; and of the parts of the victim the lungs have the foremost place.

32 月令:
蝼蝈鸣,蚯蚓出,王瓜生,苦菜秀。
Yue Ling:
The green frogs croak. Earth-worms come forth. The royal melons grow. The sow-thistle is in seed.

33 月令:
天子居明堂左个,乘朱路,驾赤骝,载赤旗,衣朱衣,服赤玉。食菽与鸡,其器高以粗。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the left of the Ming Tang (Grand Fane); rides in the vermilion carriage, drawn by the red horses with black tails, and bearing the red flag. He is dressed in the red robes, and wears the carnation jade. He eats beans and fowls. The vessels which he uses are tall, (to resemble) the large growth (of things).

34 月令:
是月也,以立夏。先立夏三日,大史谒之天子曰:某日立夏,盛德在火。天子乃齐。立夏之日,天子亲帅三公、九卿、大夫以迎夏于南郊。还反,行赏,封诸侯。庆赐遂行,无不欣说。乃命乐师,习合礼乐。命太尉,赞桀俊,遂贤良,举长大,行爵出禄,必当其位。
Yue Ling:
In this month there takes place the inauguration of summer. Three days before this ceremony, the Grand recorder informs the son of Heaven, saying, 'On such-and-such a day is the inauguration of summer. The energies of the season are most fully seen in fire.' On this the son of Heaven devotes himself to self-purification; and on the day, at the head of the three ducal ministers, the nine high ministers, and his Great officers, he proceeds to meet the summer in the southern suburbs. On their return, rewards are distributed. He grants to the feudal princes (an increase of) territory. Congratulations and gifts proceed, and all are joyful and pleased. Orders are also given to the chief master of music to teach the practice of ceremonies and music together. Orders are given to the Grand Peace-maintainer to recommend men of eminence, allow the worthy and good to have free course and bring forward the tall and large. His conferring of rank and regulation of emolument must be in accordance with the position (of the individual).

35 月令:
是月也,继长增高,毋有坏堕,毋起土功,毋发大众,毋伐大树。
Yue Ling:
In this month what is long should be encouraged to grow longer, and what is high to grow higher. There should be no injuring or overthrowing of anything; no commencing of works in earth; no sending forth of great multitudes (on expeditions); no cutting down of large trees.

36 月令:
是月也,天子始絺。命野虞出行田原,为天子劳农劝民,毋或失时。命司徒巡行县鄙,命农勉作,毋休于都。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven begins to wear thin dolichos cloth. Orders are given to the foresters throughout the country to go forth over the fields and plains, and, for the son of Heaven, to encourage the husbandmen, and stimulate them to work, and not let the season slip by unimproved. Orders are (also) given to the minister of Instruction to travel in order through the districts to the borders, charging the husbandmen to work vigorously, and not to rest in the towns.

37 月令:
是月也,驱兽毋害五谷,毋大田猎。农乃登麦,天子乃以彘尝麦,先荐寝庙。
Yue Ling:
In this month they chase away wild animals to prevent them from doing harm to any of the (growing) grain; but they should not have a great hunting. When the husbandmen present (the first-fruits of) their wheat, the son of Heaven tastes it along with some pork, first offering a portion in the apartment behind (the hall of the) ancestral temple.

38 月令:
是月也,聚畜百药。靡草死,麦秋至。断薄刑,决小罪,出轻系。蚕事毕,后妃献茧。乃收茧税,以桑为均,贵贱长幼如一,以给郊庙之服。
Yue Ling:
In this month they collect and store up the various medicinal herbs. Delicate herbs (now) die; it is the harvest time (even) of the wheat. They decide cases for which the punishments are light; they make short work of small crimes, and liberate those who are in prison for slight offences. When the work with the silk-worms is over, the queen presents her cocoons; and the tithe-tax of cocoons generally is collected, according to the number of mulberry trees; for noble and mean, for old and young there is one law. The object is with such cocoons to provide materials for the robes to be used at the sacrifices in the suburbs and in the ancestral temple.

39 月令:
是月也,天子饮酎,用礼乐。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven (entertains his ministers and princes) with strong drink and with (much) observance of ceremony and with music.

40 月令:
孟夏行秋令,则苦雨数来,五谷不滋,四鄙入保。行冬令,则草木蚤枯,后乃大水,败其城郭。行春令,则蝗虫为灾,暴风来格,秀草不实。
Yue Ling:
If, in this first month of summer, the proceedings proper to autumn were observed, pitiless rains would be frequent; the five esculent plants would not grow large, and in all the borders people would have to enter the places of shelter. If those proper to winter were observed, all plants and trees would wither early, and afterwards, there would be great floods, destroying city and suburban walls. If those proper to spring were observed, there would be the calamity of locusts, violent winds would come, and plants in flower would not go on to seed.

41 月令:
仲夏之月,日在东井,昏亢中,旦危中。其日丙丁。其帝炎帝,其神祝融。其虫羽。其音徵,律中蕤宾。其数七。其味苦,其臭焦。其祀灶,祭先肺。
Yue Ling:
In the second month of summer the sun is in the eastern Jing, the constellation culminating at dusk being Kang, and that culminating at dawn Wei. Its days are ping and ting. Its divine ruler is Yan Di, and the (attending) spirit is Gu-rong. Its creatures are the feathered. Its musical note is Zhi, and its pitch-tube is Rui Bin. Its number is seven. Its taste is acrid. Its smell is that of things burning. Its sacrifice is that at the furnace; and of the parts of the victim the lungs have the foremost place.

42 月令:
小暑至,螳蜋生。鵙始鸣,反舌无声。
Yue Ling:
The (period of) slighter heat arrives; the praying mantis is produced; the shrike begins to give its notes; the mocking-bird ceases to sing.

43 月令:
天子居明堂太庙,乘朱路,驾赤骝,载赤旗,衣朱衣,服赤玉,食菽与鸡,其器高以粗。养壮佼。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the Ming Tang Grand Fane; rides in the vermilion carriage, drawn by the red horses with black tails, and bearing the red flag. He is dressed in the red robes, and wears the carnation gems. He eats beans and fowls. The vessels which he uses are tall, (to resemble) the large growth (of things). They encourage the (continued) growth of what is strong and beautiful.

44 月令:
是月也,命乐师修鼗鞞鼓,均琴瑟管箫,执干戚戈羽,调竽笙篪簧,饬钟磬柷敔。命有司为民祈祀山川百源,大雩帝,用盛乐。乃命百县,雩祀百辟卿士有益于民者,以祈谷实。农乃登黍。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the music-masters to put in repair the hand-drums, smaller drums, and large drums; to adjust the lutes, large and small, the double flutes, and the pan-pipes; to teach the holding of the shields, pole-axes, lances, and plumes; to tune the organs, large and small, with their pipes and tongues; and to put in order the bells, sonorous stones, the instrument to give the symbol for commencing, and the stopper. Orders are given to the (proper) officers to pray for the people and offer sacrifice to the (spirits of the) hills, streams, and all springs. (After that) comes the great summer sacrifice for rain to God, when all the instruments of music are employed. Then orders are given throughout all the districts to sacrifice to the various princes, high ministers, and officers who benefited the people; praying that there may be a good harvest of grain. The husbandmen present (the first-fruits of) their millet.

45 月令:
是月也,天子乃以雏尝黍,羞以含桃,先荐寝庙。令民毋艾蓝以染,毋烧灰,毋暴布。门闾毋闭,关市毋索。挺重囚,益其食。游牝别群,则絷腾驹,班马政。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven partakes of it along with pullets, and with cherries set forth beside them, first offering a portion in the apartment behind the ancestral temple. The people are forbidden to cut down the indigo plant to use it in dyeing, or to burn wood for charcoal, or to bleach cloth in the sun. The gates of cities and villages should not be shut, nor should vexatious inquiries be instituted at the barrier gates or in the markets. Leniency should be shown to prisoners charged (even) with great crimes, and their allowance of food be increased. Impregnated mares are collected in herds by themselves, and the fiery stallions are tied up. The rules for the rearing of horses are given out.

46 月令:
是月也,日长至,阴阳争,死生分。君子齐戒,处必掩身,毋躁。止声色,毋或进。薄滋味,毋致和。节嗜欲,定心气,百官静事毋刑,以定晏阴之所成。鹿角解,蝉始鸣。半夏生,木堇荣。
Yue Ling:
In this month the longest day arrives. The influences in nature of darkness and decay and those 'Of brightness and growth struggle together; the tendencies to death and life are divided. Superior men give themselves to vigil and fasting. They keep retired in their houses, avoid all violent exercise, restrain their indulgence in music and beautiful sights, eschew the society of their wives, make their diet spare, use no piquant condiments, keep their desires under rule, and maintain their spirits free from excitement. The various magistrates keep things quiet and inflict no punishments - to bring about that state of settled quiet in which the influence of darkness and decay shall obtain its full development. Deer shed their horns. Cicadas begin to sing. The midsummer herb is produced. The tree hibiscus flowers.

47 月令:
是月也,毋用火南方。可以居高明,可以远眺望,可以升山陵,可以处台榭。
Yue Ling:
In this month fires should not be lighted (out of doors) in the southern regions (of the country). People may live in buildings high and bright. They may enjoy distant prospects. They may ascend hills and heights. They may occupy towers and lofty pavilions.

48 月令:
仲夏行冬令,则雹冻伤谷,道路不通,暴兵来至。行春令,则五谷晚熟,百螣时起,其国乃饥。行秋令,则草木零落,果实早成,民殃于疫。
Yue Ling:
If, in the second month of summer, the governmental proceedings of winter were observed, hail and told would injure the grain; the roads would not be passable; and violent assaults of war would come. If the proceedings proper to spring were observed, the grains would be late in ripening; all kinds of locusts would continually be appearing; and there would be famine in the states. If those proper to autumn were observed, herbs and plants would drop their leaves; fruits would ripen prematurely; and the people would be consumed by pestilence.

49 月令:
季夏之月,日在柳,昏火中,旦奎中。其日丙丁。其帝炎帝,其神祝融。其虫羽。其音徵,律中林钟。其数七。其味苦,其臭焦。其祀灶,祭先肺。
Yue Ling:
In the third month of summer the sun is in Liu, the constellation culminating at dusk being huo, and that culminating at dawn Kui. Its days are bing and ding. Its divine ruler is Yan Di, and the (assisting) spirit is Gu-rong. Its creatures are the feathered. Its musical note is Zhi, and its pitch-tube is Lin Zhong. Its number is seven. Its taste is acrid. Its smell is that of things burning. Its sacrifice is that at the furnace; and of the parts of the victim the lungs have the foremost place.

50 月令:
温风始至,蟋蟀居壁,鹰乃学习,腐草为萤。
Yue Ling:
Gentle winds begin to blow. The cricket takes its place in the walls. (Young) hawks learn to practise (the ways of their parents). Decaying grass becomes fire-flies.

51 月令:
天子居明堂右个,乘朱路,驾赤骝,载赤旗,衣朱衣,服赤玉。食菽与鸡,其器高以粗。命渔师伐蛟取鼍,登龟取鼋。命泽人纳材苇。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the right of the Ming Thang (Fane); rides in the vermilion carriage, drawn by the red horses with black tails, and bearing the red flag. He is dressed in the red robes, and wears the carnation gems. He eats beans and fowls. The vessels which he uses are tall, (to resemble) the large growth (of things). Orders are given to the master of the Fishermen to attack the alligator, to take the gavial, to present the tortoise, and to take the great turtle. Orders are given to the superintendent of the Meres to collect and send in the rushes available for use.

52 月令:
是月也,命四监大合百县之秩刍,以养牺牲。令民无不咸出其力,以共皇天上帝名山大川四方之神,以祠宗庙社稷之灵,以为民祈福。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the four inspectors to make a great collection over all the districts of the different kinds of fodder to nourish the sacrificial victims; and to require all the people to do their utmost towards this end - to supply what is necessary for (the worship of) God (who dwells in) the great Heaven, and for the spirits of the famous hills, great streams, and four quarters, and for the sacrifices to the Intelligences of the ancestral temple, and at the altars to the spirits of the land and grain; that prayer may be made for blessing to the people.

53 月令:
是月也,命妇官染采,黼黻文章,必以法故,无或差贷。黑黄仓赤,莫不质良,毋敢诈伪,以给郊庙祭祀之服,以为旗章,以别贵贱等给之度。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given by the officers of women's (work), on the subject of dyeing. (They are to see) that the white and black, the black and green, the green and carnation, the carnation and white be all according to the ancient rules, without error or change; and that their black, yellow, azure, and carnation be all genuine and good, without any presumptuous attempts at imposition. These furnish the materials for the robes used at the sacrifices in the suburbs and the ancestral temple; for flags and their ornaments; and for marking the different degrees of rank as high or low.

54 月令:
是月也,树木方盛,乃命虞人入山行木,毋有斩伐。不可以兴土功,不可以合诸侯,不可以起兵动众,毋举大事,以摇养气。毋发令而待,以妨神农之事也。水潦盛昌,神农将持功,举大事则有天殃。
Yue Ling:
In this month the trees are luxuriant; and orders are given to the foresters to go among the hills and examine the trees, and see that the people do not cut any down or lop their branches. There should not be any work in earth, (now) undertaken; nor any assembling of the princes of the states; nor any military movements, causing general excitement. There should be no undertaking of (such) great affairs, which will disturb the nourishing growth that is proceeding, nor any issuing of orders to be hereafter carried into effect. All these things will interfere with the business of husbandry, (which is specially dear to) the Spirits. The floods are now great and overflow the roads; husbandry (dear to) the Spirits has to take in hand its various tasks. The curse of Heaven will come on the undertaking of great affairs (at this time).

55 月令:
是月也,土润溽暑,大雨时行,烧剃行水,利以杀草,如以热汤。可以粪田畴,可以美土强。
Yue Ling:
In this month the ground lies steaming and wet beneath the heats, for great rains are (also) continually coming. They burn the grass lying cut upon the ground and bring the water over it. This is as effectual to kill the roots as hot water would be; and the grass thus serves to manure the fields of grain and hemp, and to fatten the ground which has been but just marked out for cultivation.

56 月令:
季夏行春令,则谷实鲜落,国多风咳,民乃迁徙。行秋令,则丘隰水潦,禾稼不熟,乃多女灾。行冬令,则风寒不时,鹰隼蚤鸷,四鄙入保。
Yue Ling:
If, in the last month of summer, the governmental proceedings proper to spring were observed, the produce of grain would be scanty and fail; in the states there would be many colds and coughs; and the people would remove to other places. If the proceedings proper to autumn were observed, even the high grounds would be flooded; the grain that had been sown would not ripen; and there would be many miscarriages among women. If those proper to winter were observed, the winds and cold would come out of season; the hawks and falcons would prematurely attack their prey; and all along the four borders people would enter their places of shelter.

57 月令:
中央土。其日戊己。其帝黄帝,其神后土。其虫裸,其音宫,律中黄钟之宫。其数五。其味甘,其臭香。其祠中溜,祭先心。
Yue Ling:
Right in the middle (between. Heaven and Earth, and the other elements) is earth. Its days are Wu and ji. Its divine ruler is Huang Di, and the (attending) spirit is Hou-tu. Its creature is that without any natural covering but the skin. Its musical note is Gong, and its pitch-tube gives the gong note from the tube Huang Zhong. Its number is five. Its taste is sweet. Its smell is fragrant. Its sacrifice is that of the middle court; and of the parts of the victim the heart has the foremost place.

58 月令:
天子居大庙大室,乘大路,驾黄骝,载黄旗,衣黄衣,服黄玉,食稷与牛,其器圜以闳。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the Grand apartment of the Grand fane; rides in the great carriage drawn by the yellow horses with black tails, and bearing the yellow flag; is clothed in the yellow robes, and wears the yellow gems. He eats panicled millet and beef. The vessels which he uses are round, (and made to resemble) the capacity (of the earth).

59 月令:
孟秋之月,日在翼,昏建星中,旦毕中。其日庚辛。其帝少皞,其神蓐收。其虫毛。其音商,律中夷则。其数九。其味辛,其臭腥。其祀门,祭先肝。
Yue Ling:
In the first month of autumn, the sun is in Yi the constellation culminating at dusk being Jian-xing, and that culminating at dawn Bi. Its days are geng and xin. Its divine ruler is Shao Hao, and the (attending) spirit is Ru-shou. Its creatures are the hairy. Its musical note is Shang; its pitch-tube is Yi Ze. Its number is nine. Its taste is bitter. Its smell is rank. Its sacrifice is that at the gate; and of the parts of the victim the liver has the foremost place.

60 月令:
凉风至,白露降,寒蝉鸣。鹰乃祭鸟,用始行戮。
Yue Ling:
Cool winds come; the white dew descends the cicada of the cold chirps. (Young) hawks at this time sacrifice birds, as the first step they take to killing (and eating) them.

61 月令:
天子居总章左个,乘戎路,驾白骆,载白旗,衣白衣,服白玉,食麻与犬,其器廉以深。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the left of the Zong-zhang (Fane); rides in the war chariot, drawn by the white horses with black manes, and bearing the white flag. He is clothed in the white robes, and wears the white jade. He eats hemp-seeds and dog's flesh. The vessels which he uses are rectangular, and going on to be deep.

62 月令:
是月也,以立秋。先立秋三日,大史谒之天子曰:某日立秋,盛德在金。天子乃齐。立秋之日,天子亲帅三公、九卿、诸侯、大夫,以迎秋于西郊。还反,赏军帅武人于朝。天子乃命将帅,选士厉兵,简练桀俊,专任有功,以征不义。诘诛暴慢,以明好恶,顺彼远方。
Yue Ling:
In this month there takes place the inauguration of autumn. Three days before the ceremony) the Grand recorder informs the son of Heaven, saying, 'On such-and-such a day is the inauguration of the autumn. The character of the season is fully seen in metal.' On this the son of Heaven devotes himself to self-adjustment; and on the day he leads in person the three ducal ministers, the nine high ministers, the princes of states (at court), and his Great officers, to meet the autumn in the western suburb, and on their return he rewards the general-in-chief, and the military officers in the court. The son of Heaven also orders the leaders and commanders to choose men and sharpen weapons, to select and exercise those of distinguished merit, and to give their entire trust only to men whose services have been proved - thereby to correct all unrighteousness. (He instructs them also) to make enquiries about and punish the oppressive and insolent - thereby making it clear whom he loves and whom he hates, and giving effect to (the wishes of) the people, even the most distant from court.

63 月令:
是月也,命有司修法制,缮囹圄,具桎梏,禁止奸,慎罪邪,务搏执。命理瞻伤,察创,视折,审断。决狱讼,必端平。戮有罪,严断刑。天地始肃,不可以赢。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the proper officers to revise the laws and ordinances, to put the prisons in good repair, to provide handcuffs and fetters, to repress and stop villainy, to maintain a watch against crime and wickedness, and to do their endeavour to capture criminals. Orders are (also) given to the managers (of prisons) to look at wounds, examine sores, inspect broken members, and judge particularly of dislocations. The determination of cases, both criminal and civil, must be correct and just. Heaven and earth now begin to be severe; there should be no excess in copying that severity, or in the opposite indulgence.

64 月令:
是月也,农乃登谷。天子尝新,先荐寝庙。命百官,始收敛。完堤防,谨壅塞,以备水潦。修宫室,坏墙垣,补城郭。
Yue Ling:
In this month the husbandmen present their grain. The son of Heaven tastes it, while still new, first offering some in the apartment at the back of the ancestral temple. Orders are given to all the officers to begin their collecting and storing the contributions (from the husbandmen); to finish the embankments and dykes; to look to the dams and fillings up in preparation for the floods, and also to refit all houses; to strengthen walls and enclosures; and to repair city and suburban walls.

65 月令:
是月也,毋以封诸侯、立大官。毋以割地、行大使、出大币。
Yue Ling:
In this month there should be no investing of princes, and no appointment of great ministers. There should be no dismemberment of any territory, no sending out on any great commission, and no issuing of great presents.

66 月令:
孟秋行冬令,则阴气大胜,介虫败谷,戎兵乃来。行春令,则其国乃旱,阳气复还,五谷无实。行夏令,则国多火灾,寒热不节,民多疟疾。
Yue Ling:
If, in this first month of autumn, the proceedings of government proper to winter were observed, then the dark and gloomy influence (of nature) would greatly prevail; the shelly insects would destroy the grain; and warlike operations would be called for. If the proceedings proper to spring were observed, there would be droughts in the states; the bright and growing influence would return; and the five kinds of grain would not yield their fruit. If the proceedings proper to summer were observed, there would be many calamities from fire in the states; the cold and the heat would be subject to no rule; and there would be many fevers among the people.

67 月令:
仲秋之月,日在角,昏牵牛中,旦觜觿中。其日庚辛,其帝少皞,其神蓐收。其虫毛。其音商,律中南吕。其数九。其味辛,其臭腥。其祀门,祭先肝。
Yue Ling:
In the second month of autumn the sun is in Jiao, the constellation culminating at dusk being Qian-niu, and that culminating at dawn Zi-xi. Its days are geng and xin. Its divine ruler is Shao Hao, and the (attending) spirit is Ru-shou. Its insects are the hairy. Its musical note is Shang, and its pitch-tube is Nan Lu. Its number is nine. Its taste is bitter. Its smell is rank. Its sacrifice is that of the gate; and of the parts of the victim the liver has the foremost place.

68 月令:
盲风至,鸿雁来,玄鸟归,群鸟养羞。
Yue Ling:
Sudden and violent winds come. The wild geese arrive. The swallows return (whence they came). Tribes of birds store up provisions (for the future).

69 月令:
天子居总章大庙,乘戎路,驾白骆,载白旗,衣白衣,服白玉,食麻与犬,其器廉以深。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the Zong-zhang Grand Fane; rides in the war chariot, drawn by the white horses with black manes, and bearing the white flag. He is clothed in the white robes, and wears the white gems. He eats hemp-seed and dog's flesh. The vessels which he uses are rectangular or cornered, and rather deep.

70 月令:
是月也,养衰老,授几杖,行糜粥饮食。乃命司服,具饬衣裳,文绣有恒,制有小大,度有长短。衣服有量,必循其故,冠带有常。乃命有司,申严百刑,斩杀必当,毋或枉桡。枉桡不当,反受其殃。
Yue Ling:
In this month they take especial care of the decaying and old; give them stools and staves, and distribute supplies of congee for food. Orders are given to the superintendent of robes to have ready the upper and lower dresses with their various ornaments. For the figures and embroidery on them there are fixed patterns. Their size, length, and dimensions must all be according to the old examples. For the caps and girdles (also) there are regular rules. Orders are given to the proper officers to revise with strict accuracy (the laws about) the various punishments. Beheading and (the other) capital executions must be according to (the crimes) without excess or defect. Excess or defect out of such proportion will bring on itself the judgment (of Heaven).

71 月令:
是月也,乃命宰祝,循行牺牲,视全具,案刍豢,瞻肥瘠,察物色。必比类,量小大,视长短,皆中度。五者备当,上帝其飨。天子乃难,以达秋气。以犬尝麻,先荐寝庙。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the officers of slaughter and prayer to go round among the victims for sacrifice, seeing that they are entire and complete, examining their fodder and grain, inspecting their condition as fat or thin, and judging of their looks. They must arrange them according to their classes. In measuring their size, and looking at the length (of their horns), they must have them according to the (assigned) measures. When all these points are as they ought to be, God will accept the sacrifices. The son of Heaven performs the ceremonies against pestilence, to secure development for the (healthy) airs of autumn. He eats the hemp-seed (which is now presented) along with dog's flesh, first offering some in the apartment at the back of the ancestral temple.

72 月令:
是月也,可以筑城郭,建都邑,穿窦窖,修囷仓。乃命有司,趣民收敛,务畜菜,多积聚。乃劝种麦,毋或失时。其有失时,行罪无疑。
Yue Ling:
In this month it is allowable to rear city and suburban walls, to establish cities and towns, to dig underground passages and grain-pits, and to repair granaries, round and square. Orders are given to the proper officers to be urgent with the people, and (to finish) receiving their contributions and storing them. They should do their best to accumulate (large) stores of vegetables and other things. They should (also) stimulate the wheat-sowing. (The husbandmen) should not be allowed to miss the proper time for the operation. Any who do so shall be punished without fail.

73 月令:
是月也,日夜分,雷始收声。蛰虫坏户,杀气浸盛,阳气日衰,水始涸。日夜分,则同度量,平权衡,正钧石,角斗甬。
Yue Ling:
In this month day and night are equal. The thunder begins to restrain its voice. Insects stop up the entrances to their burrows. The influence to decay and death gradually increases. That of brightness and growth daily diminishes. The waters begin to dry up. At the equinox, they make uniform the measures of length and capacity; equalise the steel-yards and their weights; rectify the weights of 30 and 120 catties; and adjust the pecks and bushels.

74 月令:
是月也,易关市,来商旅,纳货贿,以便民事。四方来集,远乡皆至,则财不匮,上无乏用,百事乃遂。凡举大事,毋逆大数,必顺其时,慎因其类。
Yue Ling:
In this month they regulate and reduce the charges at the frontier gates and in the markets, to encourage the resort of both regular and travelling traders, and the receipt of goods and money; for the convenience of the business of the people. When merchants and others collect from all quarters, and come from the most distant parts, then the resources (of the government) do not fail. There is no want of means for its use; and all things proceed prosperously. In commencing great undertakings, there should be no opposition to the great periods (for them) as defined (by the motion of the sun). They must be conformed to the times (as thereby marked out), and particular attention paid to the nature of each.

75 月令:
仲秋行春令,则秋雨不降,草木生荣,国乃有恐。行夏令,则其国乃旱,蛰虫不藏,五谷复生。行冬令,则风灾数起,收雷先行,草木蚤死。
Yue Ling:
If in this second month of autumn the proceedings proper to spring were observed, the autumnal rains would not fall; plants and trees would blossom; and in the states there would be alarms. If those proper to summer were observed, there would be droughts in the states; insects would not retire to their burrows; and the five grains would begin to grow again. If those proper to winter were observed, calamities springing from (unseasonable) winds would be constantly arising; the thunder now silent would be heard before its time; and plants and trees would die prematurely.

76 月令:
季秋之月,日在房,昏虚中,旦柳中。其日庚辛。其帝少皞,其神蓐收。其虫毛。其音商,律中无射。其数九。其味辛,其臭腥。其祀门,祭先肝。
Yue Ling:
In the last month of autumn the sun is in Fang, the constellation culminating at dusk being Xu, and that culminating at dawn Liu. Its days are geng and xin. Its divine ruler is Shao Hao, and the (attending) spirit is Ru-shou. Its creatures are the hairy. Its musical note is Shang, and its pitch-tube is Wu Yi. Its number is nine. Its taste is bitter. Its smell is rank. Its sacrifice is that at the gate; and of the parts of the victim the liver has the foremost place.

77 月令:
鸿雁来宾,爵入大水为蛤。鞠有黄华,豺乃祭兽戮禽。
Yue Ling:
The wild geese come, (and abide) like guests. Small birds enter the great water and become mollusks. Chrysanthemums show their yellow flowers. The chai sacrifice larger animals, and kill (and devour) the smaller.

78 月令:
天子居总章右个,乘戎路,驾白骆,载白旗,衣白衣,服白玉。食麻与犬,其器廉以深。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the right of the Zong-zhang (Fane); rides in the war chariot, drawn by the white horses with black manes, and bearing the white flags; is dressed in the white robes, and wears the white jade. He eats hemp-seeds and dog's flesh. The vessels which he uses are rectangular, cornered, and rather deep.

79 月令:
是月也,申严号令。命百官贵贱无不务内,以会天地之藏,无有宣出。乃命冢宰,农事备收,举五谷之要,藏帝藉之收于神仓,祗敬必饬。
Yue Ling:
In this month the orders are renewed and strictly enjoined, charging the various, officers (to see) that noble and mean all exert themselves in the work of ingathering, in harmony with the storing of heaven and earth. They must not allow anything to remain out in the fields. Orders are also given to the chief minister, after the fruits of husbandry have all been gathered in, to take in hand the registers of the produce of the different grains (from all the country), and to store up the produce that has been gathered from the acres of God in the granary of the spirits; doing this with the utmost reverence and correctness.

80 月令:
是月也,霜始降,则百工休。乃命有司曰:寒气总至,民力不堪,其皆入室。上丁,命乐正入学习吹。
Yue Ling:
In this month the hoar-frost begins to fall; and all labours cease (for a season). Orders are given to the proper officers, saying, 'The cold airs are all coming, and the people will not be able to endure them. Let all enter within their houses (for a time).' On the first ting day orders are given to the chief Director of music to enter the college, and to practise (with his pupils) on the wind instruments.

81 月令:
是月也,大飨帝、尝,牺牲告备于天子。合诸侯,制百县,为来岁受朔日,与诸侯所税于民轻重之法,贡职之数,以远近土地所宜为度,以给郊庙之事,无有所私。
Yue Ling:
In this month an announcement is made to the son of Heaven that the victims for the great sacrifice to God, and the autumnal sacrifice in the ancestral temple' are fit and ready. The princes of the states are assembled, and orders given to the officers of the various districts (in the royal domain). They receive the first days of the months for the coming year, and the laws for the taxation of the people by the princes, both light and heavy, and the amount of the regular contribution to the government, which is determined by the distance of the territories and the nature of their several productions. The object of this is to provide what is necessary for the suburban sacrifices and those in the ancestral temple. No private considerations are allowed to have place in this.

82 月令:
是月也,天子乃教于田猎,以习五戎,班马政。命仆及七驺咸驾,载旌旐,授车以级,整设于屏外。司徒搢扑,北面誓之。天子乃厉饰,执弓挟矢以猎,命主祠祭禽于四方。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven, by means of hunting, teaches how to use the five weapons of war, and the rules for the management of horses. Orders are given to the charioteers and the seven (classes of) grooms to see to the yoking of the several teams, to set up in the carriages the flags and various banners, to assign the carriages according to the rank (of those who were to occupy them), and to arrange and set up the screens outside (the royal tent). The minister of Instruction, with his baton stuck in his girdle, addresses all before him with his face to the north. Then the son of Heaven, in his martial ornaments, with his bow in one hand, and the arrows under the armpit of the other, proceeds to hunt. (Finally), he gives orders to the superintendent of Sacrifices, to offer some of the captured game to (the spirits of) the four quarters.

83 月令:
是月也,草木黄落,乃伐薪为炭。蛰虫咸俯在内,皆墐其户。乃趣狱刑,毋留有罪。收禄秩之不当、供养之不宜者。
Yue Ling:
In this month the plants and trees become yellow and their leaves fall, on which the branches are cut down to make charcoal. Insects in their burrows all try to push deeper, and from within plaster up the entrances. In accordance with (the season), they hurry on the decision and punishment of criminal cases, wishing not to leave them any longer undealt with. They call in emoluments that have been assigned incorrectly, and minister to those whose means are insufficient for their wants.

84 月令:
是月也,天子乃以犬尝稻,先荐寝庙。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven eats dog's flesh and rice, first presenting some in the apartment at the back of the ancestral temple.

85 月令:
季秋行夏令,则其国大水,冬藏殃败,民多鼽嚏。行冬令,则国多盗贼,边境不宁,土地分裂。行春令,则暖风来至,民气解惰,师兴不居。
Yue Ling:
If, in this last month of autumn, the proceedings proper to summer were observed, there would be great floods in the states; the winter stores would be injured and damaged; there would be many colds and catarrhs among the people. If those proper to winter were observed, there would be many thieves and robbers in the states; the borders would be unquiet; and portions of territory would be torn from the rest. If those proper to spring were observed, the warm airs would come; the energies of the people would be relaxed and languid; and the troops would be kept moving about.

86 月令:
孟冬之月,日在尾,昏危中,旦七星中。其日壬癸。其帝颛顼,其神玄冥。其虫介。其音羽,律中应钟。其数六。其味咸,其臭朽。其祀行,祭先肾。
Yue Ling:
In the first month of winter the sun is in Wei, the constellation culminating at dusk being Wei, and the constellation culminating at dawn Qi-xing. Its days are the ren and gui. Its divine ruler is Zhuan-xu, and the (attending) spirit is Xuan-ming. Its creatures are the shell-covered. Its musical note is Yu, and its pitch-tube is Ying Zhong. Its number is six. Its taste is salt. Its smell is that of things that are rotten. Its sacrifice is that at (the altar of) the path, and among the parts of the victim the kidneys have the foremost place.

87 月令:
水始冰,地始冻。雉入大水为蜃。虹藏不见。
Yue Ling:
Water begins to congeal. The earth begins to be penetrated by the cold. Pheasants enter the great water and become large mollusks. Rainbows are hidden and do not appear.

88 月令:
天子居玄堂左个,乘玄路,驾铁骊,载玄旗,衣黑衣,服玄玉,食黍与彘,其器闳以奄。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the left of the Xuan Tang (Fane); rides in the dark-coloured carriage, drawn by the iron black horses, and bearing the dark-coloured flag; is dressed in the black robes, and wears the dark-coloured jade. He eats millet and sucking-pig. The vessels which he uses are large and rather deep.

89 月令:
是月也,以立冬。先立冬三日,太史谒之天子曰:某日立冬,盛德在水。天子乃齐。立冬之日,天子亲帅三公、九卿、大夫以迎冬于北郊,还反,赏死事,恤孤寡。
Yue Ling:
In this month there takes place the inauguration of winter. Three days before this ceremony, the Grand recorder informs the son of Heaven, saying, 'On such-and-such a day is the inauguration of winter. The character of the season is fully seen in water.' On this the son of Heaven devotes himself to self-adjustment; and on the day of the inauguration he leads in person the three ducal ministers, the nine high ministers, and his Great officers to meet the winter in the northern suburbs. On his return he rewards (the descendants of) those who died in the service (of the kingdom), and shows his compassion to orphans and widows.

90 月令:
是月也,命大史衅龟策,占兆审卦吉凶,是察阿党,则罪无有掩蔽。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the Grand recorder to smear with blood the tortoise-shells and divining stalks', and by interpreting the indications of the former and examining the figures formed by the latter, to determine the good and evil of their intimations. (In this way) all flattery and partizanship in the interpretation of them (will become clear), and the crime of their operators be brought home. No concealment or deceit will be allowed.

91 月令:
是月也,天子始裘。命有司曰:天气上腾,地气下降,天地不通,闭塞而成冬。命百官谨盖藏。命司徒循行积聚,无有不敛。坏城郭,戒门闾,修键闭,慎管龠,固封疆,备边竟,完要塞,谨关梁,塞徯径。饬丧纪,辨衣裳,审棺椁之厚薄,茔丘垄之大小、高卑、厚薄之度,贵贱之等级。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven sets the example of wearing furs. Orders are issued to the proper officers in the words: 'The airs of heaven are ascended on high, and those of earth have descended beneath. There is no intercommunion of heaven and earth. All is shut up and winter is completely formed.' Orders are given to all the officers to cover up carefully the stores (of their departments). The minister of Instruction is also ordered to go round (among the people and see) that they have formed their stores, and that nothing is left ungathered. The city and suburban walls are put in good repair; the gates of towns and villages are looked after; bolts and nuts are put to rights; locks and keys are carefully attended to; the field-boundaries are strengthened; the frontiers are well secured; important defiles are thoroughly defended; passes and bridges are carefully seen after; and narrow ways and cross-paths are shut up. The rules for mourning are revised; the distinctions of the upper and lower garments are defined; the thickness of the inner and outer coffins is decided on; with the size, height and other dimensions of graves. The measures for all these things are assigned, with the degrees and differences in them according to rank.

92 月令:
是月也,命工师效功,陈祭器,按度程,毋或作为淫巧以荡上心。必功致为上。物勒工名,以考其诚。功有不当,必行其罪,以穷其情。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the chief Director of works to prepare a memorial on the work of the artificers; setting forth especially the sacrificial vessels with the measures and capacity (of them and all others), and seeing that there be no licentious ingenuity in the workmanship which might introduce an element of dissipation into the minds of superiors; and making the suitability of the article the first consideration. Every article should have its maker's name engraved on it, for the determination of its, genuineness. When the production is not what it ought to be, the artificer should be held guilty and an end be thus put to deception.

93 月令:
是月也,大饮烝。天子乃祈来年于天宗,大割祠于公社及门闾。腊先祖五祀,劳农以休息之。天子乃命将帅讲武,习射御角力。
Yue Ling:
In this month there is the great festivity when they drink together, and each of the stands bears half its animal roasted. The son of Heaven prays for (a blessing on) the coming year to the Honoured ones of heaven; sacrifices with an ox, a ram, and a boar at the public altar to the spirits of the land, and at the gates of towns and villages; offers the sacrifice three days after the winter solstice with the spoils of the chase to all ancestors, and at the five (household) sacrifices; thus cheering the husbandmen and helping them to rest from their toils. The son of Heaven orders his leaders and commanders to give instruction on military operations, and to exercise (the soldiers) in archery and chariot-driving, and in trials of strength.

94 月令:
是月也,乃命水虞渔师,收水泉池泽之赋。毋或敢侵削众庶兆民,以为天子取怨于下。其有若此者,行罪无赦。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the superintendent of waters and the master of fishermen to collect the revenues from rivers, springs, ponds, and meres, taking care not to encroach in any way on any among the myriads of the people, so as to awaken a feeling of dissatisfaction in them against the son of Heaven. If they do this, they shall be punished for their guilt without forgiveness.

95 月令:
孟冬行春令,则冻闭不密,地气上泄,民多流亡。行夏令,则国多暴风,方冬不寒,蛰虫复出。行秋令,则雪霜不时,小兵时起,土地侵削。
Yue Ling:
If, in the first month of winter, the proceedings of government proper to spring were observed, the cold that shuts up all beneath it would not do so tightly; the vapours of the earth would rise up and go abroad; many of the people would wander away and disappear. If those proper to summer were observed, there would be many violent winds in the states; winter itself would not be cold; and insects would come forth again from their burrows. If those proper to autumn were observed, the snow and hoarfrost would come unseasonably; small military affairs would constantly be arising; and incursions and loss of territory would occur.

96 月令:
仲冬之月,日在斗,昏东壁中,旦轸中。其日壬癸。其帝颛顼,其神玄冥。其虫介。其音羽,律中黄锺。其数六。其味咸,其臭朽。其祀行,祭先肾。
Yue Ling:
In the second month of winter the sun is in Dou, the constellation culminating at dusk being the eastern Bi, and that culminating at dawn Zhen. Its days are ren and gui. Its divine ruler is Zhuan-xu, and the (attending) spirit is Xuan-ming. Its creatures are the shell-covered. Its musical note is Yu, and its pitch-tube is Huang Zhong. Its number is six. Its taste is salt. Its smell is that of things that are rotten. Its sacrifice is that at (the altar of) the path, and of the parts of the victim the kidneys have the foremost place.

97 月令:
冰益壮,地始坼。鶡旦不鸣,虎始交。
Yue Ling:
The ice becomes more strong. The earth begins to crack or split. The night bird ceases to sing. Tigers begin to pair.

98 月令:
天子居玄堂大庙,乘玄路,驾铁骊,载玄旗,衣黑衣,服玄玉。食黍与彘,其器闳以奄。饬死事。命有司曰:土事毋作,慎毋发盖,毋发室屋,及起大众,以固而闭。地气且泄,是谓发天地之房,诸蛰则死,民必疾疫,又随以丧。命之曰畅月。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the Grand Fane Xuan Tang; rides in the dark-coloured carriage, drawn by the iron black horses, and bearing the dark-coloured flag. He is dressed in the black robes, and wears the dark-coloured gems of jade. He eats millet and sucking-pig. The vessels which he uses are large and rather deep. All things relating to the dead are revised and regulated. Orders are given to the proper officer to the following effect: 'There should nothing be done in works of earth; care should be taken not to expose anything that is covered, nor to throw open apartments and houses, and rouse the masses to action; that all may be kept securely shut up. (Otherwise) the genial influences of earth will find vent, which might be called a throwing open of the house of heaven and earth. In this case all insects would die; and the people be sure to fall ill from Pestilence, and various losses would ensue.' This charge is said to be giving full development to the (idea of the) month.

99 月令:
是月也,命奄尹,申宫令,审门闾,谨房室,必重闭。省妇事毋得淫,虽有贵戚近习,毋有不禁。乃命大酋,秫稻必齐,麴蘖必时,湛炽必洁,水泉必香,陶器必良,火齐必得,兼用六物。大酋监之,毋有差贷。天子命有司祈祀四海大川名源渊泽井泉。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the Director of the eunuchs to issue afresh the orders for the palace, to examine all the doors, inner and outer, and look carefully after all the apartments. They must be kept strictly shut. All woman's-work must be diminished, and none of an extravagant nature permitted. Though noble and nearly related friends should come to visit the inmates, they must all be excluded. Orders are given to the Grand superintendent of the preparation of liquors to see that the rice and other glutinous grains are all complete; that the leaven-cakes are in season; that the soaking and heating are cleanly conducted; that the water be fragrant; that the vessels of pottery be good; and that the regulation of the fire be right. These six things have all to be attended to, and the Grand superintendent has the inspection of them, to secure that there be no error or mistake. The son of Heaven issues orders to the proper officers to pray and sacrifice to (the spirits presiding over) the four seas, the great rivers (with their) famous sources, the deep tarns, and the meres, (all) wells and springs.

100 月令:
是月也,农有不收藏积聚者、马牛畜兽有放佚者,取之不诘。山林薮泽,有能取蔬食、田猎禽兽者,野虞教道之;其有相侵夺者,罪之不赦。
Yue Ling:
In this month, if the husbandmen have any productions in the fields, which they have not stored or collected, or if there be any horses, oxen or other animals, which have been left at large, any one may take, them without its being inquired into. If there be those who are able to take from, the hills and forests, marshes and meres. edible fruits, or to capture game by hunting, the wardens and foresters should give them the necessary information and guidance. If there be among them those who encroach on or rob the others, they should be punished without fail.

101 月令:
是月也,日短至。阴阳争,诸生荡。君子齐戒,处必掩身。身欲宁,去声色,禁耆欲。安形性,事欲静,以待阴阳之所定。芸始生,荔挺出,蚯蚓结,麋角解,水泉动。日短至,则伐木,取竹箭。
Yue Ling:
In this month the shortest day arrives. The principle of darkness and decay (in nature) struggles with that of brightness and growth. The elements of life begin to move. Superior men give themselves to self-adjustment and fasting. They keep retired in their houses. They wish to be at rest in their persons; put away all indulgence in music and beautiful sights; repress their various desires; give repose to their bodies and all mental excitements. They wish all affairs to be quiet, while they wait for the settlement of those principles of darkness and decay, and brightness and growth. Rice begins to grow. The broom-sedge rises up vigorously. Worms curl. The moose-deer shed their horns. The springs of water are (all) in movement. When the shortest day has arrived, they fell trees, and carry away bamboos, (especially) the small species suitable for arrows.

102 月令:
是月也,可以罢官之无事、去器之无用者。涂阙廷门闾,筑囹圄,此所以助天地之闭藏也。
Yue Ling:
In this month, offices in which there is no business may be closed, and vessels for which there is no use may be removed. They plaster (and repair) the pillars and gateways (of the palace), and the courtyard (within), and also doors and other gateways; rebuilding (also all) prisons, to co-operate with the tendency of nature to shut up and secure (the genial influences at this season).

103 月令:
仲冬行夏令,则其国乃旱,氛雾冥冥,雷乃发声。行秋令,则天时雨汁,瓜瓠不成,国有大兵。行春令,则蝗虫为败,水泉咸竭,民多疥疠。
Yue Ling:
If in this second month of winter the proceedings of government proper to summer were observed, there would be droughts in the states; vapours and fogs would shed abroad their gloom, and thunder would utter its voice. If those proper to autumn were observed, the weather would be rainy and slushy; melons and gourds would not attain their full growth; and there would be great wars in the states. If those proper to spring were observed, locusts would work their harm; the springs would all become dry; and many of the people would suffer from leprosy and foul ulcers.

104 月令:
季冬之月,日在婺女,昏娄中,旦氐中。其日壬癸。其帝颛顼,其神玄冥。其虫介。其音羽,律中大吕。其数六。其味咸,其臭朽。其祀行,祭先肾。
Yue Ling:
In the third month of winter the sun is in Wu-nu, the constellation culminating at dusk being Lou, and that culminating at dawn Di. Its days are ren and gui. Its divine ruler is Zhuan-xu, and the (attendant) spirit is Xuan-ming. Its creatures are the shell-covered. Its musical note is Yu, and its pitch-tube is Da Lu. Its number is six. Its taste is salt. Its smell is that of things that are rotten. Its sacrifice is that at (the altar of) the path; and the part of the victim occupying the foremost place is the kidneys.

105 月令:
雁北乡,鹊始巢。雉雊,鸡乳。
Yue Ling:
The wild geese go northwards. The magpie begins to build. The (cock) pheasant crows. Hens hatch.

106 月令:
天子居玄堂右个。乘玄路,驾铁骊,载玄旗,衣黑衣,服玄玉。食黍与彘,其器闳以奄。命有司大难,旁磔,出土牛,以送寒气。征鸟厉疾。乃毕山川之祀,及帝之大臣,天子神祇。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the right of the Xuan Tang (Fane); rides in the dark-coloured carriage, drawn by the iron-black horses, and bearing the dark-coloured flag. He is dressed in the black robes, and wears the dark-coloured gems of jade. He eats millet and sucking-pig. The vessels which he uses are large and rather deep. He issues orders to the proper officers to institute on a great scale all ceremonies against pestilence, to have (animals) torn in pieces on all sides, and (then) to send forth the ox of earth, to escort away the (injurious) airs of the cold. Birds of prey fly high and rapidly. They now offer sacrifices all round to (the spirits of) the hills and rivers, to the great ministers of the (ancient) deified sovereigns, and to the spirits of heaven (and earth).

107 月令:
是月也,命渔师始渔,天子亲往,乃尝鱼,先荐寝庙。冰方盛,水泽腹坚。命取冰,冰以入。令告民,出五种。命农计耦耕事,修耒耜,具田器。命乐师大合吹而罢。乃命四监收秩薪柴,以共郊庙及百祀之薪燎。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the master of the Fishermen to commence the fishers' work. The son of Heaven goes in person (to look on). He partakes of the fish caught, first presenting some in the apartment at the back of the ancestral temple. The ice is now abundant: thick and strong to the bottom of the waters and meres. Orders are given to collect it, which is done, and it is carried into (the ice-houses). Orders are given to make announcement to the people to bring forth their seed of the five grains. The husbandmen are ordered to reckon up the pairs which they can furnish for the ploughing; to repair the handles and shares of their ploughs; and to provide all the other instruments for the fields. Orders are given to the chief director of Music to institute a grand concert of wind instruments; and with this (the music of the year) is, closed. Orders are given to the four Inspectors to collect and arrange the faggots to supply the wood and torches for the suburban sacrifices, those in the ancestral temple, and all others.

108 月令:
是月也,日穷于次,月穷于纪,星回于天。数将几终,岁且更始。专而农民,毋有所使。天子乃与公、卿、大夫,共饬国典,论时令,以待来岁之宜。乃命太史次诸侯之列,赋之牺牲,以共皇天、上帝、社稷之飨。乃命同姓之邦,共寝庙之刍豢。命宰历卿大夫至于庶民土田之数,而赋牺牲,以共山林名川之祀。凡在天下九州之民者,无不咸献其力,以共皇天、上帝、社稷、寝庙、山林、名川之祀。
Yue Ling:
In this month the sun has gone through all his mansions; the moon has completed the number of her conjunctions; the stars return to (their places) in the heavens. The exact length (of the year) is nearly completed, and the year will soon begin again. (It is said), 'Attend to the business of your husbandmen. Let them not be employed on anything else.' The son of Heaven, along with his ducal and other high ministers and his Great officers, revises the statutes for the states, and discusses the proceedings of the different seasons; to be prepared with what is suitable for the ensuing year. Orders are given to the Grand recorder to make a list of the princes of the states according to the positions severally assigned to them, and of the victims required from them to supply the offerings for the worship of God dwelling in the great heaven, and at the altars of (the spirits of) the land and grain. Orders were also given to the states ruled by princes of the royal surname to supply the fodder and grain for the (victims used in the worship of the) ancestral temple. Orders are given, moreover, to the chief minister to make a list of (the appanages of) the various high ministers and Great officers, with the amount of the land assigned to the common people, and assess them with the victims which they are to contribute to furnish for the sacrifices to (the spirits presiding over) the hills, forests, and famous streams. All the people under the sky, within the nine provinces, must, without exception, do their utmost to contribute to the sacrifices:-to God dwelling in the great heaven; at the altars of the (spirits of the) land and grain; in the ancestral temple and the apartment at the back of it; and of the hills, forests, and famous streams.

109 月令:
季冬行秋令,则白露早降,介虫为妖,四鄙入保。行春令,则胎夭多伤,国多固疾,命之曰逆。行夏令,则水潦败国,时雪不降,冰冻消释。
Yue Ling:
If, in the last month of winter, the governmental proceedings proper to autumn were observed, the white dews would descend too early; the shelly creatures would appear in monstrous forms; throughout the four borders people would have to seek their places of shelter. If those proper to spring were observed, women with child and young children would suffer many disasters; throughout the states there would be many cases of obstinate disease; fate would appear to be adverse. If those proper to summer were observed, floods would work their ruin in the states; the seasonable snow would not fall, the ice would melt, and the cold disappear.

Total 3 paragraphs. Page 1 of 1.