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Scope: Liji Request type: Paragraph
Condition 1: Contains text "desire" Matched:43.
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禮記 - Liji

[Warring States (475 BC - 221 BC)] English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《禮記》 Library Resources
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[Also known as: 《小戴禮記》, "The Classic of Rites"]

學記 - Xue Ji

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《學記》 Library Resources
[Also known as: "Record on the subject of education"]

4 學記:
古之教者,家有塾,黨有庠,術有序,國有學。比年入學,中年考校。一年視離經辨志,三年視敬業樂群,五年視博習親師,七年視論學取友,謂之小成;九年知類通達,強立而不反,謂之大成。夫然後足以化民易俗,近者說服,而遠者懷之,此大學之道也。《記》曰:「蛾子時術之。」其此之謂乎!
Xue Ji:
According to the system of ancient teaching, for the families of (a hamlet) there was the village school; for a neighbourhood there was the xiang; for the larger districts there was the xu; and in the capitals there was the college. Every year some entered the college, and every second year there was a comparative examination. In the first year it was seen whether they could read the texts intelligently, and what was the meaning of each; in the third year, whether they were reverently attentive to their work, and what companionship was most pleasant to them; in the fifth year, how they extended their studies and sought the company of their teachers; in the seventh year, how they could discuss the subjects of their studies and select their friends. They were now said to have made some small attainments. In the ninth year, when they knew the different classes of subjects and had gained a general intelligence, were firmly established and would not fall back, they were said to have made grand attainments. After this the training was sufficient to transform the people, and to change (anything bad in) manners and customs. Those who lived near at hand submitted with delight, and those who were far off thought (of the teaching) with longing desire. Such was the method of the Great learning; as is said in the Record, 'The little ant continually exercises the art (of amassing).'

樂記 - Yue Ji

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《樂記》 Library Resources
[Also known as: "Record of music"]

6 樂記:
是故樂之隆,非極音也。食饗之禮,非致味也。清廟之瑟,朱弦而疏越,壹倡而三嘆,有遺音者矣。大饗之禮,尚玄酒而俎腥魚,大羹不和,有遺味者矣。是故先王之制禮樂也,非以極口腹耳目之欲也,將以教民平好惡而反人道之正也。
Yue Ji:
Hence the greatest achievements of music were not in the perfection of the airs; the (efficacy) of the ceremonies in the sacrificial offerings was not in the exquisiteness of the flavours. In the lute's for the Qing Miao the strings were of red (boiled) silk, and the holes were wide apart; one lute began, and (only) three others joined it; there was much melody not brought out. In the ceremonies of the great sacrifices, the dark-coloured liquor took precedence, and on the stands were uncooked fish, while the grand soup had no condiments: there was much flavour left undeveloped. Thus we see that the ancient kings, in their institution of ceremonies and music, did not seek how fully they could satisfy the desires of the appetite and of the ears and eyes; but they intended to teach the people to regulate their likings and dislikings, and to bring them back to the normal course of humanity.

7 樂記:
人生而靜,天之性也;感於物而動,性之欲也。物至知知,然後好惡形焉。好惡無節於內,知誘於外,不能反躬,天理滅矣。
Yue Ji:
It belongs to the nature of man, as from Heaven, to be still at his birth. His activity shows itself as he is acted on by external things, and developes the desires incident to his nature. Things come to him more and more, and his knowledge is increased. Then arise the manifestations of liking and disliking. When these are not regulated by anything within, and growing knowledge leads more astray without, he cannot come back to himself, and his Heavenly principle is extinguished.

8 樂記:
夫物之感人無窮,而人之好惡無節,則是物至而人化物也。人化物也者,滅天理而窮人欲者也。於是有悖逆詐偽之心,有淫泆作亂之事。是故強者脅弱,眾者暴寡,知者詐愚,勇者苦怯,疾病不養,老幼孤獨不得其所,此大亂之道也。
Yue Ji:
Now there is no end of the things by which man is affected; and when his likings and dislikings are not subject to regulation (from within), he is changed into the nature of things as they come before him; that is, he stifles the voice of Heavenly principle within, and gives the utmost indulgence to the desires by which men may be possessed. On this we have the rebellious and deceitful heart, with licentious and violent disorder. The strong press upon the weak; the many are cruel to the few; the knowing impose upon the dull; the bold make it bitter for the timid; the diseased are not nursed; the old and young, orphans and solitaries are neglected - such is the great disorder that ensues.

32 樂記:
故曰:樂者樂也。君子樂得其道,小人樂得其欲。以道制欲,則樂而不亂;以欲忘道,則惑而不樂。
Yue Ji:
Hence we have the saying, 'Where there is music there is joy.' Superior men rejoice in attaining to the course (which they wish to pursue); and smaller men in obtaining the things which they desire. When the objects of desire are regulated by a consideration of the course to be pursued, there is joy without any disorder. When those objects lead to the forgetfulness of that course, there is delusion, and no joy.

35 樂記:
樂其象,然後治其飾。是故先鼓以警戒,三步以見方,再始以著往,復亂以飭歸。奮疾而不拔,極幽而不隱。獨樂其志,不厭其道;備舉其道,不私其欲。是故情見而義立,樂終而德尊。君子以好善,小人以聽過。故曰:生民之道,樂為大焉。
Yue Ji:
Thus they first strike the drum to warn (the performers) to be in readiness, and (the pantomimes) take three steps to show the nature of the dance. This is done a second time and they begin to move forward; and when they have completed their evolutions, they return and dress their ranks. However rapid their movements may be, there is nothing violent in them; however mysterious they may be, they are not beyond the power of being understood. One, studying them alone, finds pleasure in the object of them, and does not tire in his endeavours to understand them. When he has fully understood them, he does not keep what he desires to himself. Thus the affections (of joy) are displayed; the (ideal) of righteousness is established; and when the music is ended, the (due) honour has been paid to virtue. Superior men by it nourish their love of what is good; small men in it hear the (correction of) their errors. Hence it is said, that 'for the courses to be pursued by men the influence of music is great.'

42 樂記:
魏文侯問於子夏曰:「吾端冕而聽古樂,則唯恐臥;聽鄭衛之音,則不知倦。敢問:古樂之如彼何也?新樂之如此何也?」
Yue Ji:
The marquis Wen of Wei asked Zi-xia, saying, 'When in my square-cut dark robes and cap I listen to the ancient music, I am only afraid that I shall go to sleep. When I listen to the music of Kang and Wei, I do not feel tired; let me ask why I should feel so differently under the old and the new music.'
子夏對曰:「今夫古樂,進旅退旅,和正以廣。弦匏笙簧,會守拊鼓,始奏以文,復亂以武,治亂以相,訊疾以雅。君子於是語,於是道古,修身及家,平均天下。此古樂之發也。
Zi-xia replied, 'In the old music, (the performers) advance and retire all together; the music is harmonious, correct, and in large volume; the stringed instruments (above) and those made from gourd shells with the organs and their metal tongues (below), are all kept waiting for the striking of the drum. The music first strikes up at the sound of the drum; and when it ends, it is at the sound of the cymbals. The close of each part of the performance is regulated by the Xiang, and the rapidity of the motions by the Ya. In (all) this the superior man speaks of, and follows, the way of antiquity. The character is cultivated; the family is regulated; and peace and order are secured throughout the kingdom. This is the manner of the ancient music.
今夫新樂,進俯退俯,奸聲以濫,溺而不止;及優侏儒,糅雜子女,不知父子。樂終不可以語,不可以道古。此新樂之發也。今君之所問者樂也,所好者音也!夫樂者,與音相近而不同。」
'But now, in the new music, (the performers) advance and retire without any regular order; the music is corrupt to excess; there is no end to its vileness. Among the players there are dwarfs like monkeys, while boys and girls are mixed together, and there is no distinction between father and son. Such music can never be talked about, and cannot be said to be after the manner of antiquity. This is the fashion of the new music. What you ask about is music; and what you like is sound. Now music and sound are akin, but they are not the same.'
文侯曰:「敢問何如?」子夏對曰:「夫古者,天地順而四時當,民有德而五穀昌,疾疢不作而無妖祥,此之謂大當。然後聖人作為父子君臣,以為紀綱。紀綱既正,天下大定。天下大定,然後正六律,和五聲,弦歌詩頌,此之謂德音;德音之謂樂。《》云:『莫其德音,其德克明。克明克類,克長克君,王此大邦;克順克俾,俾於文王,其德靡悔。既受帝祉,施於孫子。』此之謂也。今君之所好者,其溺音乎?」
The marquis asked him to explain, and Zi-xia replied, 'In antiquity, Heaven and Earth acted according to their several natures, and the four seasons were what they ought to be. The people were virtuous, and all the cereals produced abundantly. There were no fevers or other diseases, and no apparitions or other prodigies. This was what we call "the period of great order." After this arose the sages, and set forth the duties between father and son, and between ruler and subject, for the guidance of society. When these guiding rules were thus correctly adjusted, all under heaven, there was a great tranquillity; after which they framed with exactness the six accords (upper and lower), and gave harmony to the five notes (of the scale), and the singing to the lutes of the odes and praise-songs; constituting what we call "the virtuous airs." Such virtuous airs constituted what we call "Music," as is declared in the Book of Poetry (III, i, ode 7, 4), 'Silently grew the fame of his virtue, His virtue was highly intelligent; Highly intelligent, and of rare discrimination; Able to lead, able to rule, To rule over this great country, Rendering a cordial submission, effecting a cordial union. When (the sway) came to king Wen, His virtue left nothing to be dissatisfied with. He received the blessing of God, And it was extended to his descendants." May I not say that what you love are the vile airs?'
文侯曰:「敢問溺音何從出也?」子夏對曰:「鄭音好濫淫志,宋音燕女溺志,衛音趨數煩志,齊音敖辟喬志;此四者皆淫於色而害於德,是以祭祀弗用也。《》云:『肅雍和鳴,先祖是聽。』夫肅肅,敬也;雍雍,和也。夫敬以和,何事不行?
The marquis said, "Let me ask where the vile airs come from?' Zi-xia replied, 'The airs of Zheng go to a wild excess, and debauch the mind; those of Song tell of slothful indulgence and women, and drown the mind; those of Wei are vehement and rapid, and perplex the mind; and those of Qi are violent and depraved, and make the mind arrogant. The airs of those four states all stimulate libidinous desire, and are injurious to virtue;--they should therefore not be used at sacrifices. It is said in the Book of Poetry (IV, i [Part ii], ode 5), "In solemn unison (the instruments) give forth their notes; Our ancestors will hearken to them." That solemn unison denotes the grave reverence and harmony of their notes - with reverence, blended with harmony, what is there that cannot be done?
為人君者謹其所好惡而已矣。君好之,則臣為之。上行之,則民從之。《》云:『誘民孔易』,此之謂也。」然後,聖人作為鞉、鼓、椌、楬、塤、篪,此六者德音之音也。然後鐘磬竽瑟以和之,干戚旄狄以舞之,此所以祭先王之廟也,所以獻酬酳酢也,所以官序貴賤各得其宜也,所以示後世有尊卑長幼之序也。
'A ruler has only to be careful of what he likes and dislikes. What the ruler likes, his ministers will practise; and what superiors do, their inferiors follow. This is the sentiment in the Book of Poetry (III, ii, ode 10, 6), "To lead the people is very easy." Seeing this, and after (the repose of the people was secured), the sages made hand-drums and drums, the stopper and the starter, the earthen whistle and the bamboo flute - the six instruments which produced the sounds of their virtuous airs. After these came the bell, the sounding-stone, the organ with thirty-six pipes, and the large lute, to be played in harmony with them; the shields, axes, ox-tails, and plumes, brandished by the pantomimes in time and tune. These they employed at the sacrifices in the temple of the former kings, at festivals in offering and receiving the pledge cup; in arranging the services of officers (in the temple) according to the rank due to each, as noble or mean, and in showing to future ages how they observed the order due to rank and to age.
鐘聲鏗,鏗以立號,號以立橫,橫以立武。君子聽鐘聲則思武臣。石聲磬,磬以立辨,辨以致死。君子聽磬聲則思死封疆之臣。絲聲哀,哀以立廉,廉以立志。君子聽琴瑟之聲則思志義之臣。竹聲濫,濫以立會,會以聚眾。君子聽竽笙簫管之聲,則思畜聚之臣。鼓鼙之聲讙,讙以立動,動以進眾。君子聽鼓鼙之聲,則思將帥之臣。君子之聽音,非聽其鏗槍而已也,彼亦有所合之也。
'The bells give out a clanging sound as a signal. The signal is recognised by all, and that recognition produces a martial enthusiasm. When the ruler hears the sound of the bell, he thinks of his officers of war. The sounding-stones give out a tinkling sound, as a summons to the exercise of discrimination. That discrimination may lead to the encountering of death. When the ruler hears the sounding-stone, he thinks of his officers who die in defence of his frontiers. The stringed instruments give out a melancholy sound, which produces the thought of purity and fidelity, and awakens the determination of the mind. When the ruler hears the sound of the lute and cithern, he thinks of his officers who are bent on righteousness. The instruments of bamboo give out a sound like that of overflowing waters, which suggests the idea of an assembly, the object of which is to collect the multitudes together. When the ruler hears the sound of his organs, pipes, and flutes, he thinks of his officers who gather the people together. The drums and tambours give out their loud volume of sound, which excites the idea of movement, and tends to the advancing of the host. When the ruler hears the sounds of his drums and tambours, he thinks of his leaders and commanders. When a superior man thus hears his musical instruments, he does not hear only the sounds which they emit. There are associated ideas which accompany these.'

祭義 - Ji Yi

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《祭義》 Library Resources
[Also known as: "The meaning of sacrifices"]

2 祭義:
致齊於內,散齊於外。齊之日:思其居處,思其笑語,思其志意,思其所樂,思其所嗜。齊三日,乃見其所為齊者。
Ji Yi:
The severest vigil and purification is maintained and carried on inwardly; while a looser vigil is maintained externally. During the days of such vigil, the mourner thinks of his departed, how and where they sat, how they smiled and spoke, what were their aims and views, what they delighted in, and what things they desired and enjoyed. On the third day of such exercise he will see those for whom it is employed.

10 祭義:
孝子之祭,可知也,其立之也敬以詘,其進之也敬以愉,其薦之也敬以欲;退而立,如將受命;已徹而退,敬齊之色不絕於面。孝子之祭也,立而不詘,固也;進而不愉,疏也;薦而不欲,不愛也;退立而不如受命,敖也;已徹而退,無敬齊之色,而忘本也。如是而祭,失之矣。
Ji Yi:
What the sacrifice of a filial son should be can be known. While he is standing (waiting for the service to commence), he should be reverent, with his body somewhat bent; while he is. engaged in carrying forward the service, he should be reverent, with an expression of pleasure; when he is presenting the offerings, he should be reverent, with an expression of desire. He should then retire and stand, as if he were about to receive orders; when he has removed the offerings and (finally) retires, the expression of reverent gravity should continue to be worn on his face. Such is the sacrifice of a filial son. To stand without any inclination of the body would show insensibility; to carry the service forward without an expression of pleasure would show indifference; to present the offerings without an expression of desire (that they may be enjoyed) would show a want of love; to retire and stand without seeming to expect to receive orders would show pride; to retire and stand, after the removal of the offerings, without an expression of reverent gravity would show a forgetfulness of the parent to whom he owes his being. A sacrifice so conducted would be wanting in its proper characteristics.

祭統 - Ji Tong

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《祭統》 Library Resources
[Also known as: "A summary account of sacrifices"]

6 祭統:
及時將祭,君子乃齊。齊之為言齊也。齊不齊以致齊者也。是以君子非有大事也,非有恭敬也,則不齊。不齊則於物無防也,嗜欲無止也。及其將齊也,防其邪物,訖其嗜欲,耳不聽樂。故記曰:「齊者不樂」,言不敢散其志也。心不茍慮,必依於道;手足不茍動,必依於禮。是故君子之齊也,專致其精明之德也。
Ji Tong:
When the time came for offering a sacrifice, the man wisely gave himself to the work of purification. That purification meant the production of uniformity (in all the thoughts);-it was the giving uniformity to all that was not uniform, till a uniform direction of the thoughts was realised. Hence a superior man, unless for a great occasion, and unless he were animated by a great reverence, did not attempt this purification. While it was not attained, he did not take precautions against the influence of (outward) things, nor did he cease from all (internal) desires. But when he was about to attempt it, he guarded against all things of an evil nature, and suppressed all his desires, His ears did not listen to music;--as it is said in the Record, 'People occupied with purification have no music,' meaning that they did not venture to allow its dissipation of their minds. He allowed no vain thoughts in his heart, but kept them in a strict adherence to what was right. He allowed no reckless movement of his hands or feet, but kept them firmly in the way of propriety. Thus the superior man, in his purification, devotes himself to carrying to its utmost extent his refined and intelligent virtue.

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