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公孫丑上 - Gong Sun Chou I

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2 公孫丑上:
公孫丑問曰:「夫子加齊之卿相,得行道焉,雖由此霸王不異矣。如此,則動心否乎?」
Gong Sun Chou I:
Gong Sun Chou asked Mencius, saying, 'Master, if you were to be appointed a high noble and the prime minister of Qi, so as to be able to carry your principles into practice, though you should thereupon raise the ruler to the headship of all the other princes, or even to the royal dignity, it would not be to be wondered at. In such a position would your mind be perturbed or not?'
孟子曰:「否。我四十不動心。」
Mencius replied, 'No. At forty, I attained to an unperturbed mind.'
曰:「若是,則夫子過孟賁遠矣。」
Chou said, 'Since it is so with you, my Master, you are far beyond Meng Ben.'
曰:「是不難,告子先我不動心。」
'The mere attainment,' said Mencius, 'is not difficult. The scholar Gao had attained to an unperturbed mind at an earlier period of life than I did.'
曰:「不動心有道乎?」
Chou asked, 'Is there any way to an unperturbed mind?'
曰:「有。北宮黝之養勇也,不膚撓,不目逃,思以一豪挫於人,若撻之於市朝。不受於褐寬博,亦不受於萬乘之君。視刺萬乘之君,若刺褐夫。無嚴諸侯。惡聲至,必反之。孟施舍之所養勇也,曰:『視不勝猶勝也。量敵而後進,慮勝而後會,是畏三軍者也。舍豈能為必勝哉?能無懼而已矣。』孟施舍似曾子,北宮黝似子夏。夫二子之勇,未知其孰賢,然而孟施舍守約也。昔者曾子謂子襄曰:『子好勇乎?吾嘗聞大勇於夫子矣:自反而不縮,雖褐寬博,吾不惴焉;自反而縮,雖千萬人,吾往矣。』孟施舍之守氣,又不如曾子之守約也。」
The answer was, 'Yes. Bei Gong You had this way of nourishing his valour: He did not flinch from any strokes at his body. He did not turn his eyes aside from any thrusts at them. He considered that the slightest push from any one was the same as if he were beaten before the crowds in the market-place, and that what he would not receive from a common man in his loose large garments of hair, neither should he receive from a prince of ten thousand chariots. He viewed stabbing a prince of ten thousand chariots just as stabbing a fellow dressed in cloth of hair. He feared not any of all the princes. A bad word addressed to him be always returned. Meng Shi She had this way of nourishing his valour: He said, "I look upon not conquering and conquering in the same way. To measure the enemy and then advance; to calculate the chances of victory and then engage - this is to stand in awe of the opposing force. How can I make certain of conquering? I can only rise superior to all fear." Meng Shi She resembled the philosopher Zeng. Bei Gong You resembled Zi Xia. I do not know to the valour of which of the two the superiority should be ascribed, but yet Meng Shi She attended to what was of the greater importance. Formerly, the philosopher Zeng said to Zi Xiang, "Do you love valour? I heard an account of great valour from the Master. It speaks thus: 'If, on self-examination, I find that I am not upright, shall I not be in fear even of a poor man in his loose garments of hair-cloth? If, on self-examination, I find that I am upright, I will go forward against thousands and tens of thousands.' Yet, what Meng Shi She maintained, being merely his physical energy, was after all inferior to what the philosopher Zeng maintained, which was indeed of the most importance.'
曰:「敢問夫子之不動心,與告子之不動心,可得聞與?」
Gong Sun Chou said, 'May I venture to ask an explanation from you, Master, of how you maintain an unperturbed mind, and how the philosopher Gao does the same?'
「告子曰:『不得於言,勿求於心;不得於心,勿求於氣。』不得於心,勿求於氣,可;不得於言,勿求於心,不可。夫志,氣之帥也;氣,體之充也。夫志至焉,氣次焉。故曰:『持其志,無暴其氣。』」
Mencius answered, 'Gao says, "What is not attained in words is not to be sought for in the mind; what produces dissatisfaction in the mind, is not to be helped by passion-effort." This last, when there is unrest in the mind, not to seek for relief from passion-effort, may be conceded. But not to seek in the mind for what is not attained in words cannot be conceded. The will is the leader of the passion-nature. The passion-nature pervades and animates the body. The will is first and chief, and the passion-nature is subordinate to it. Therefore I say, Maintain firm the will, and do no violence to the passion-nature.'
「既曰『志至焉,氣次焉』,又曰『持其志無暴其氣』者,何也?」
Chou observed, 'Since you say "The will is chief, and the passion-nature is subordinate," how do you also say, "Maintain firm the will, and do no violence to the passion-nature?"'
曰:「志壹則動氣,氣壹則動志也。今夫蹶者趨者,是氣也,而反動其心。」
Mencius replied, 'When it is the will alone which is active, it moves the passion-nature. When it is the passion-nature alone which is active, it moves the will. For instance now, in the case of a man falling or running, that is from the passion-nature, and yet it moves the mind.'
「敢問夫子惡乎長?」
'I venture to ask,' said Chou again, 'wherein you, Master, surpass Gao.'
曰:「我知言,我善養吾浩然之氣。」
Mencius told him, 'I understand words. I am skilful in nourishing my vast, flowing passion-nature.'
「敢問何謂浩然之氣?」
Chou pursued, 'I venture to ask what you mean by your vast, flowing passion-nature!'
曰:「難言也。其為氣也,至大至剛,以直養而無害,則塞于天地之閒。其為氣也,配義與道;無是,餒也。是集義所生者,非義襲而取之也。行有不慊於心,則餒矣。我故曰,告子未嘗知義,以其外之也。必有事焉而勿正,心勿忘,勿助長也。無若宋人然:宋人有閔其苗之不長而揠之者,芒芒然歸。謂其人曰:『今日病矣,予助苗長矣。』其子趨而往視之,苗則槁矣。天下之不助苗長者寡矣。以為無益而舍之者,不耘苗者也;助之長者,揠苗者也。非徒無益,而又害之。」
The reply was, 'It is difficult to describe it. This is the passion-nature: It is exceedingly great, and exceedingly strong. Being nourished by rectitude, and sustaining no injury, it fills up all between heaven and earth. This is the passion-nature: It is the mate and assistant of righteousness and reason. Without it, man is in a state of starvation. It is produced by the accumulation of righteous deeds; it is not to be obtained by incidental acts of righteousness. If the mind does not feel complacency in the conduct, the nature becomes starved. I therefore said, "Gao has never understood righteousness, because he makes it something external." There must be the constant practice of this righteousness, but without the object of thereby nourishing the passion-nature. Let not the mind forget its work, but let there be no assisting the growth of that nature. Let us not be like the man of Song. There was a man of Song, who was grieved that his growing corn was not longer, and so he pulled it up. Having done this, he returned home, looking very stupid, and said to his people, "I am tired to-day. I have been helping the corn to grow long." His son ran to look at it, and found the corn all withered. There are few in the world, who do not deal with their passion-nature, as if they were assisting the corn to grow long. Some indeed consider it of no benefit to them, and let it alone - they do not weed their corn. They who assist it to grow long, pull out their corn. What they do is not only of no benefit to the nature, but it also injures it.'
「何謂知言?」
Gong Sun Chou further asked, 'What do you mean by saying that you understand whatever words you hear?'
曰:「詖辭知其所蔽,淫辭知其所陷,邪辭知其所離,遁辭知其所窮。生於其心,害於其政;發於其政,害於其事。聖人復起,必從吾言矣。」
Mencius replied, 'When words are one-sided, I know how the mind of the speaker is clouded over. When words are extravagant, I know how the mind is fallen and sunk. When words are all-depraved, I know how the mind has departed from principle. When words are evasive, I know how the mind is at its wit's end. These evils growing in the mind, do injury to government, and, displayed in the government, are hurtful to the conduct of affairs. When a Sage shall again arise, he will certainly follow my words.'
「宰我、子貢善為說辭,冉牛、閔子、顏淵善言德行。孔子兼之,曰:『我於辭命則不能也。』然則夫子既聖矣乎?」
On this Chou observed, 'Zai Wo and Zi Gong were skilful in speaking. Ran Niu, the disciple Min, and Yan Yuan, while their words were good, were distinguished for their virtuous conduct. Confucius united the qualities of the disciples in himself, but still he said, "In the matter of speeches, I am not competent." Then, Master, have you attained to be a Sage?'
曰:「惡!是何言也?昔者子貢、問於孔子曰:『夫子聖矣乎?』孔子曰:『聖則吾不能,我學不厭而教不倦也。』子貢曰:『學不厭,智也;教不倦,仁也。仁且智,夫子既聖矣!』夫聖,孔子不居,是何言也?」
Mencius said, 'Oh! what words are these? Formerly Zi Gong asked Confucius, saying, "Master, are you a Sage?" Confucius answered him, "A Sage is what I cannot rise to. I learn without satiety, and teach without being tired." Zi Gong said, "You learn without satiety - that shows your wisdom. You teach without being tired - that shows your benevolence. Benevolent and wise - Master, you ARE a Sage." Now, since Confucius would not allow himself to be regarded as a Sage, what words were those?'
「昔者竊聞之:子夏、子游、子張皆有聖人之一體,冉牛、閔子、顏淵則具體而微。敢問所安。」
Chou said, 'Formerly, I once heard this: Zi Xia, Zi You, and Zi Zhang had each one member of the Sage. Ran Niu, the disciple Min, and Yan Yuan had all the members, but in small proportions. I venture to ask, With which of these are you pleased to rank yourself?'
曰:「姑舍是。」
Mencius replied, 'Let us drop speaking about these, if you please.'
曰:「伯夷、伊尹何如?」
Chou then asked, 'What do you say of Bo Yi and Yi Yin?'
曰:「不同道。非其君不事,非其民不使;治則進,亂則退,伯夷也。何事非君,何使非民;治亦進,亂亦進,伊尹也。可以仕則仕,可以止則止,可以久則久,可以速則速,孔子也。皆古聖人也,吾未能有行焉;乃所願,則學孔子也。」
'Their ways were different from mine,' said Mencius. 'Not to serve a prince whom he did not esteem, nor command a people whom he did not approve; in a time of good government to take office, and on the occurrence of confusion to retire - this was the way of Bo Yi. To say "Whom may I not serve? My serving him makes him my ruler. What people may I not command? My commanding them makes them my people." In a time of good government to take office, and when disorder prevailed, also to take office - that was the way of Yi Yin. When it was proper to go into office, then to go into it; when it was proper to keep retired from office, then to keep retired from it; when it was proper to continue in it long, then to continue in it long - when it was proper to withdraw from it quickly, then to withdraw quickly - that was the way of Confucius. These were all sages of antiquity, and I have not attained to do what they did. But what I wish to do is to learn to be like Confucius.'
「伯夷、伊尹於孔子,若是班乎?」
Chou said, 'Comparing Bo Yi and Yi Yin with Confucius, are they to be placed in the same rank?'
曰:「否。自有生民以來,未有孔子也。」
Mencius replied, 'No. Since there were living men until now, there never was another Confucius.'
曰:「然則有同與?」
Chou said, 'Then, did they have any points of agreement with him?'
曰:「有。得百里之地而君之,皆能以朝諸侯有天下。行一不義、殺一不辜而得天下,皆不為也。是則同。」
The reply was, 'Yes. If they had been sovereigns over a hundred li of territory, they would, all of them, have brought all the princes to attend in their court, and have obtained the throne. And none of them, in order to obtain the throne, would have committed one act of unrighteousness, or put to death one innocent person. In those things they agreed with him.'
曰:「敢問其所以異?」
Chou said, 'I venture to ask wherein he differed from them.'
曰:「宰我、子貢、有若智足以知聖人。汙,不至阿其所好。宰我曰:『以予觀於夫子,賢於堯舜遠矣。』子貢曰:『見其禮而知其政,聞其樂而知其德。由百世之後,等百世之王,莫之能違也。自生民以來,未有夫子也。』有若曰:『豈惟民哉?麒麟之於走獸,鳳凰之於飛鳥,太山之於丘垤,河海之於行潦,類也。聖人之於民,亦類也。出於其類,拔乎其萃,自生民以來,未有盛於孔子也。』」
Mencius replied, 'Zai Wo, Zi Gong, and You Ruo had wisdom sufficient to know the sage. Even had they been ranking themselves low, they would not have demeaned themselves to flatter their favourite. Now, Zai Wo said, "According to my view of our Master, he was far superior to Yao and Shun." Zi Gong said, "By viewing the ceremonial ordinances of a prince, we know the character of his government. By hearing his music, we know the character of his virtue. After the lapse of a hundred ages I can arrange, according to their merits, the kings of a hundred ages - not one of them can escape me. From the birth of mankind till now, there has never been another like our Master." You Ruo said, "Is it only among men that it is so? There is the Qi-lin among quadrupeds, the Feng-huang among birds, the Tai mountain among mounds and ant-hills, and rivers and seas among rain-pools. Though different in degree, they are the same in kind. So the sages among mankind are also the same in kind. But they stand out from their fellows, and rise above the level, and from the birth of mankind till now, there never has been one so complete as Confucius."'

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