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梁惠王上 - Liang Hui Wang I

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7 梁惠王上:
齐宣王问曰:“齐桓、晋文之事可得闻乎?”
Liang Hui Wang I:
The king Xuan of Qi asked, saying, 'May I be informed by you of the transactions of Huan of Qi, and Wen of Jin?'
孟子对曰:“仲尼之徒无道桓、文之事者,是以后世无传焉。臣未之闻也。无以,则王乎?”
Mencius replied, 'There were none of the disciples of Zhong Ni who spoke about the affairs of Huan and Wen, and therefore they have not been transmitted to these after-ages - your servant has not heard them. If you will have me speak, let it be about royal government.'
曰:“德何如,则可以王矣?”
The king said, 'What virtue must there be in order to attain to royal sway?'
曰:“保民而王,莫之能御也。”
Mencius answered, 'The love and protection of the people; with this there is no power which can prevent a ruler from attaining to it.'
曰:“若寡人者,可以保民乎哉?”
The king asked again, 'Is such an one as I competent to love and protect the people?'
曰:“可。”
Mencius said, 'Yes.'
曰:“何由知吾可也?”
'How do you know that I am competent for that?'
曰:“臣闻之胡齕曰,王坐于堂上,有牵牛而过堂下者,王见之,曰:‘牛何之?’对曰:‘将以衅钟。’王曰:‘舍之!吾不忍其觳觫,若无罪而就死地。’对曰:‘然则废衅钟与?’曰:‘何可废也?以羊易之!’不识有诸?”
'I heard the following incident from Hu He: "The king," said he, "was sitting aloft in the hall, when a man appeared, leading an ox past the lower part of it. The king saw him, and asked, Where is the ox going? The man replied, We are going to consecrate a bell with its blood. The king said, Let it go. I cannot bear its frightened appearance, as if it were an innocent person going to the place of death. The man answered, Shall we then omit the consecration of the bell ? The king said, How can that be omitted? Change it for a sheep." I do not know whether this incident really occurred.'
曰:“有之。”
The king replied, 'It did,'
曰:“是心足以王矣。百姓皆以王为爱也,臣固知王之不忍也。”
and then Mencius said, 'The heart seen in this is sufficient to carry you to the royal sway. The people all supposed that your Majesty grudged the animal, but your servant knows surely, that it was your Majesty's not being able to bear the sight, which made you do as you did.'
王曰:“然。诚有百姓者。齐国虽褊小,吾何爱一牛?即不忍其觳觫,若无罪而就死地,故以羊易之也。”
The king said, 'You are right. And yet there really was an appearance of what the people condemned. But though Qi be a small and narrow State, how should I grudge one ox? Indeed it was because I could not bear its frightened appearance, as if it were an innocent person going to the place of death, that therefore I changed it for a sheep.'
曰:“王无异于百姓之以王为爱也。以小易大,彼恶知之?王若隐其无罪而就死地,则牛羊何择焉?”
Mencius pursued, 'Let not your Majesty deem it strange that the people should think you were grudging the animal. When you changed a large one for a small, how should they know the true reason? If you felt pained by its being led without guilt to the place of death, what was there to choose between an ox and a sheep?
王笑曰:“是诚何心哉?我非爱其财。而易之以羊也,宜乎百姓之谓我爱也。”
The king laughed and said, 'What really was my mind in the matter? I did not grudge the expense of it, and changed it for a sheep! There was reason in the people's saying that I grudged it.'
曰:“无伤也,是乃仁术也,见牛未见羊也。君子之于禽兽也,见其生,不忍见其死;闻其声,不忍食其肉。是以君子远庖厨也。”
'There is no harm in their saying so,' said Mencius. 'Your conduct was an artifice of benevolence. You saw the ox, and had not seen the sheep. So is the superior man affected towards animals, that, having seen them alive, he cannot bear to see them die; having heard their dying cries, he cannot bear to eat their flesh. Therefore he keeps away from his slaughter-house and cook-room.'
王说曰:“《》云:‘他人有心,予忖度之。’夫子之谓也。夫我乃行之,反而求之,不得吾心。夫子言之,于我心有戚戚焉。此心之所以合于王者,何也?”
The king was pleased, and said, 'It is said in the Book of Poetry, "The minds of others, I am able by reflection to measure;" - this is verified, my Master, in your discovery of my motive. I indeed did the thing, but when I turned my thoughts inward, and examined into it, I could not discover my own mind. When you, Master, spoke those words, the movements of compassion began to work in my mind. How is it that this heart has in it what is equal to the royal sway?'
曰:“有复于王者曰:‘吾力足以举百钧’,而不足以举一羽;‘明足以察秋毫之末’,而不见舆薪,则王许之乎?”
Mencius replied, 'Suppose a man were to make this statement to your Majesty: "My strength is sufficient to lift three thousand catties, but it is not sufficient to lift one feather; my eyesight is sharp enough to examine the point of an autumn hair, but I do not see a waggon-load of faggots;" would your Majesty allow what he said?'
曰:“否。”
'No,' was the answer,
“今恩足以及禽兽,而功不至于百姓者,独何与?然则一羽之不举,为不用力焉;舆薪之不见,为不用明焉,百姓之不见保,为不用恩焉。故王之不王,不为也,非不能也。”
on which Mencius proceeded, 'Now here is kindness sufficient to reach to animals, and no benefits are extended from it to the people. How is this? Is an exception to be made here? The truth is, the feather is not lifted , because strength is not used; the waggon-load of firewood is not seen, because the eyesight is not used; and the people are not loved and protected, because kindness is not employed. Therefore your Majesty's not exercising the royal sway, is because you do not do it, not because you are not able to do it.'
曰:“不为者与不能者之形何以异?”
The king asked, 'How may the difference between the not doing a thing, and the not being able to do it, be represented?
曰:“挟太山以超北海,语人曰‘我不能’,是诚不能也。为长者折枝,语人曰‘我不能’,是不为也,非不能也。故王之不王,非挟太山以超北海之类也;王之不王,是折枝之类也。老吾老,以及人之老;幼吾幼,以及人之幼。天下可运于掌。《》云:‘刑于寡妻,至于兄弟,以御于家邦。’言举斯心加诸彼而已。故推恩足以保四海,不推恩无以保妻子。古之人所以大过人者无他焉,善推其所为而已矣。今恩足以及禽兽,而功不至于百姓者,独何与?权,然后知轻重;度,然后知长短。物皆然,心为甚。王请度之!抑王兴甲兵,危士臣,构怨于诸侯,然后快于心与?”
Mencius replied,'In such a thing as taking the Tai mountain under your arm, and leaping over the north sea with it, if you say to people "I am not able to do it," that is a real case of not being able. In such a matter as breaking off a branch from a tree at the order of a superior, if you say to people "I am not able to do it," that is a case of not doing it, it is not a case of not being able to do it. Therefore your Majesty's not exercising the royal sway, is not such a case as that of taking the Tai mountain under your arm, and leaping over the north sea with it. Your Majesty's not exercising the royal sway is a case like that of breaking off a branch from a tree. Treat with the reverence due to age the elders in your own family, so that the elders in the families of others shall be similarly treated; treat with the kindness due to youth the young in your own family, so that the young in the families of others shall be similarly treated - do this, and the kingdom may be made to go round in your palm. It is said in the Book of Poetry, "His example affected his wife. It reached to his brothers, and his family of the State was governed by it." The language shows how king Wen simply took his kindly heart, and exercised it towards those parties. Therefore the carrying out his kindness of heart by a prince will suffice for the love and protection of all within the four seas, and if he do not carry it out, he will not be able to protect his wife and children. The way in which the ancients came greatly to surpass other men, was no other but this - simply that they knew well how to carry out, so as to affect others, what they themselves did. Now your kindness is sufficient to reach to animals, and no benefits are extended from it to reach the people. How is this? Is an exception to be made here? By weighing, we know what things are light, and what heavy. By measuring, we know what things are long, and what short. The relations of all things may be thus determined, and it is of the greatest importance to estimate the motions of the mind. I beg your Majesty to measure it. You collect your equipments of war, endanger your soldiers and officers, and excite the resentment of the other princes - do these things cause you pleasure in your mind?'
王曰:“否。吾何快于是?将以求吾所大欲也。”
The king replied, 'No. How should I derive pleasure from these things? My object in them is to seek for what I greatly desire.'
曰:“王之所大欲可得闻与?”王笑而不言。
Mencius said, 'May I hear from you what it is that you greatly desire?' The king laughed and did not speak.
曰:“为肥甘不足于口与?轻暖不足于体与?抑为采色不足视于目与?声音不足听于耳与?便嬖不足使令于前与?王之诸臣皆足以供之,而王岂为是哉?”
Mencius resumed, 'Are you led to desire it, because you have not enough of rich and sweet food for your mouth? Or because you have not enough of light and warm clothing for your body? Or because you have not enough of beautifully coloured objects to delight your eyes? Or because you have not voices and tones enough to please your ears? Or because you have not enough of attendants and favourites to stand before you and receive your orders? Your Majesty's various officers are sufficient to supply you with those things. How can your Majesty be led to entertain such a desire on account of them?'
曰:“否。吾不为是也。”
'No,' said the king; 'my desire is not on account of them.'
曰:“然则王之所大欲可知已。欲辟土地,朝秦楚,莅中国而抚四夷也。以若所为求若所欲,犹缘木而求鱼也。”
Mencius added, 'Then, what your Majesty greatly desires may be known. You wish to enlarge your territories, to have Qin and Chu wait at your court, to rule the Middle Kingdom, and to attract to you the barbarous tribes that surround it. But doing what you do to seek for what you desire is like climbing a tree to seek for fish.'
王曰:“若是其甚与?”
The king said, 'Is it so bad as that?'
曰:“殆有甚焉。缘木求鱼,虽不得鱼,无后灾。以若所为,求若所欲,尽心力而为之,后必有灾。”
'It is even worse,' was the reply. 'If you climb a tree to seek for fish, although you do not get the fish, you will not suffer any subsequent calamity. But doing what you do to seek for what you desire, doing it moreover with all your heart, you will assuredly afterwards meet with calamities.'
曰:“可得闻与?”
The king asked, 'May I hear from you the proof of that?'
曰:“邹人与楚人战,则王以为孰胜?”
Mencius said, 'If the people of Zou should fight with the people of Chu, which of them does your Majesty think would conquer?'
曰:“楚人胜。”
'The people of Chu would conquer.'
曰:“然则小固不可以敌大,寡固不可以敌众,弱固不可以敌强。海内之地方千里者九,齐集有其一。以一服八,何以异于邹敌楚哉?盖亦反其本矣。今王发政施仁,使天下仕者皆欲立于王之朝,耕者皆欲耕于王之野,商贾皆欲藏于王之市,行旅皆欲出于王之涂,天下之欲疾其君者皆欲赴诉于王。其若是,孰能御之?”
'Yes - and so it is certain that a small country cannot contend with a great, that few cannot contend with many, that the weak cannot contend with the strong. The territory within the four seas embraces nine divisions, each of a thousand li square. All Qi together is but one of them. If with one part you try to subdue the other eight, what is the difference between that and Zou's contending with Chu? For, with such a desire, you must turn back to the proper course for its attainment. Now if your Majesty will institute a government whose action shall be benevolent, this will cause all the officers in the kingdom to wish to stand in your Majesty's court, and all the farmers to wish to plough in your Majesty's fields, and all the merchants, both travelling and stationary, to wish to store their goods in your Majesty's market-places, and all travelling strangers to wish to make their tours on your Majesty's roads, and all throughout the kingdom who feel aggrieved by their rulers to wish to come and complain to your Majesty. And when they are so bent, who will be able to keep them back?'
王曰:“吾惛,不能进于是矣。愿夫子辅吾志,明以教我。我虽不敏,请尝试之。”
The king said, 'I am stupid, and not able to advance to this. I wish you, my Master, to assist my intentions. Teach me clearly; although I am deficient in intelligence and vigour, I will essay and try to carry your instructions into effect.'
曰:“无恒产而有恒心者,惟士为能。若民,则无恒产,因无恒心。苟无恒心,放辟,邪侈,无不为已。及陷于罪,然后从而刑之,是罔民也。焉有仁人在位,罔民而可为也?是故明君制民之产,必使仰足以事父母,俯足以畜妻子,乐岁终身饱,凶年免于死亡。然后驱而之善,故民之从之也轻。今也制民之产,仰不足以事父母,俯不足以畜妻子,乐岁终身苦,凶年不免于死亡。此惟救死而恐不赡,奚暇治礼义哉?王欲行之,则盍反其本矣。五亩之宅,树之以桑,五十者可以衣帛矣;鸡豚狗彘之畜,无失其时,七十者可以食肉矣;百亩之田,勿夺其时,八口之家可以无饥矣;谨庠序之教,申之以孝悌之义,颁白者不负戴于道路矣。老者衣帛食肉,黎民不饥不寒,然而不王者,未之有也。”
Mencius replied, 'They are only men of education, who, without a certain livelihood, are able to maintain a fixed heart. As to the people, if they have not a certain livelihood, it follows that they will not have a fixed heart. And if they have not a fixed heart, there is nothing which they will not do, in the way of self-abandonment, of moral deflection, of depravity, and of wild license. When they thus have been involved in crime, to follow them up and punish them - this is to entrap the people. How can such a thing as entrapping the people be done under the rule of a benevolent man? Therefore an intelligent ruler will regulate the livelihood of the people, so as to make sure that, for those above them, they shall have sufficient wherewith to serve their parents, and, for those below them, sufficient wherewith to support their wives and children; that in good years they shall always be abundantly satisfied, and that in bad years they shall escape the danger of perishing. After this he may urge them, and they will proceed to what is good, for in this case the people will follow after it with ease. Now, the livelihood of the people is so regulated, that, above, they have not sufficient wherewith to serve their parents, and, below, they have not sufficient wherewith to support their wives and children. Notwithstanding good years, their lives are continually embittered, and, in bad years, they do not escape perishing. In such circumstances they only try to save themselves from death, and are afraid they will not succeed. What leisure have they to cultivate propriety and righteousness? If your Majesty wishes to effect this regulation of the livelihood of the people, why not turn to that which is the essential step to it? Let mulberry-trees be planted about the homesteads with their five mu, and persons of fifty years may be clothed with silk. In keeping fowls, pigs, dogs, and swine, let not their times of breeding be neglected, and persons of seventy years may eat flesh. Let there not be taken away the time that is proper for the cultivation of the farm with its hundred mu, and the family of eight mouths that is supported by it shall not suffer from hunger. Let careful attention be paid to education in schools, the inculcation in it especially of the filial and fraternal duties, and grey-haired men will not be seen upon the roads, carrying burdens on their backs or on their heads. It never has been that the ruler of a State where such results were seen, the old wearing silk and eating flesh, and the black-haired people suffering neither from hunger nor cold, did not attain to the royal dignity.'

Total 1 paragraphs. Page 1 of 1.