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Scope: Wan Zhang II Request type: Paragraph
Condition 1: Contains text "孟子曰在國曰市井之臣在野曰草莽之臣皆謂庶人" Matched:1.
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萬章下 - Wan Zhang II

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16 萬章下:
Wan Zhang II:
Wan Zhang said, 'I venture to ask what principle of righteousness is involved in a scholar's not going to see the princes?'
Mencius replied, 'A scholar residing in the city is called "a minister of the market-place and well," and one residing in the country is called "a minister of the grass and plants." In both cases he is a common man, and it is the rule of propriety that common men, who have not presented the introductory present and become ministers, should not presume to have interviews with the prince.'
Wan Zhang said, 'If a common man is called to perform any service, he goes and performs it; how is it that a scholar, when the prince, wishing to see him, calls him to his presence, refuses to go?'
Mencius replied, 'It is right to go and perform the service; it would not be right to go and see the prince. And,' added Mencius, 'on what account is it that the prince wishes to see the scholar?'
'Because of his extensive information, or because of his talents and virtue,' was the reply.
'If because of his extensive information,' said Mencius, 'such a person is a teacher, and the sovereign would not call him - how much less may any of the princes do so? If because of his talents and virtue, then I have not heard of any one wishing to see a person with those qualities, and calling him to his presence. During the frequent interviews of the duke Mu with Zi Si, he one day said to him, "Anciently, princes of a thousand chariots have yet been on terms of friendship with scholars - what do you think of such an intercourse?" Zi Si was displeased, and said, "The ancients have said, 'The scholar should be served:' how should they have merely said that he should be made a friend of?" When Zi Si was thus displeased, did he not say within himself, "With regard to our stations, you are sovereign, and I am subject. How can I presume to be on terms of friendship with my sovereign! With regard to our virtue, you ought to make me your master. How can you be on terms of friendship with me?" Thus, when a ruler of a thousand chariots sought to be on terms of friendship with a scholar, he could not obtain his wish - how much less could he call him to his presence! The duke Ching of Qi, once, when he was hunting, called his forester to him by a flag. The forester would not come, and the duke was going to kill him. With reference to this incident, Confucius said, "The determined officer never forgets that his end may be in a ditch or a stream; the brave officer never forgets that he may lose his head." What was it in the forester that Confucius thus approved? He approved his not going to the duke, when summoned by the article which was not appropriate to him.'
Zhang said, 'May I ask with what a forester should be summoned?'
Mencius replied, 'With a skin cap. A common man should be summoned with a plain banner; a scholar who has taken office, with one having dragons embroidered on it; and a Great officer, with one having feathers suspended from the top of the staff. When the forester was summoned with the article appropriate to the summoning of a Great officer, he would have died rather than presume to go. If a common man were summoned with the article appropriate to the summoning of a scholar, how could he presume to go? How much more may we expect this refusal to go, when a man of talents and virtue is summoned in a way which is inappropriate to his character! When a prince wishes to see a man of talents and virtue, and does not take the proper course to get his wish, it is as if he wished him to enter his palace, and shut the door against him. Now, righteousness is the way, and propriety is the door, but it is only the superior man who can follow this way, and go out and in by this door. It is said in the Book of Poetry, "The way to Zhou is level like a whetstone, And straight as an arrow. The officers tread it, And the lower people see it."'
Wan Zhang said, 'When Confucius received the prince's message calling him, he went without waiting for his carriage. Doing so, did Confucius do wrong?'
Mencius replied, 'Confucius was in office, and had to observe its appropriate duties. And moreover, he was summoned on the business of his office.'

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