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中國哲學書電子化計劃
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檢索範圍: 墨家 檢索類型: 段落
條件1: 包含字詞"書" 符合次數:100.
共53段落。第1頁,共6頁。 跳至頁1 2 3 4 5 6

墨家

相關資源
[又名:"Moism"]

墨子 - Mozi

[春秋 - 戰國] 公元前490年-公元前221年 英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?]
提到《墨子》的書籍 電子圖書館
簡介說明
資料來源
相關資源
[又名:"Mo-tze"]

卷一 - Book 1

電子圖書館

七患 - The seven causes of anxiety

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館
3 七患:
今有負其子而汲者,隊其子於井中,其母必從而道之。今歲凶,民饑道餓,重其子此疚於隊,其可無察邪?故時年歲善,則民仁且良;時年歲凶,則民吝且惡。夫民何常此之有?為者疾,食者眾,則歲無豐。故曰:「財不足則反之時,食不足則反之用。」故先民以時生財,固本而用財,則財足。故雖上世之聖王,豈能使五穀常收而旱水不至哉?然而無凍餓之民者,何也?其力時急而自養儉也。故《》曰:「禹七年水。」《殷》曰:「湯五年旱。」此其離凶餓甚矣。然而民不凍餓者,何也?其生財密,其用之節也。
The seven causes of...:
Now, if carrying her child and drawing water from a well, a woman dropped the child into the well, she would of course endeavour to get it out. But famine and dearth is a much greater calamity than the dropping of a child. Should there not be also endeavour (to prevent it)? People are gentle and kind when the year is good, but selfish and vicious when it is bad. Yet, how can they be held responsible? When many produce but few consume then there can be no bad year; on the contrary, when few produce but many consume then there can be no good year. Thus it is said: scarcity of supply should stimulate study of the seasons and want of food demands economy of expenditures. The ancients produced wealth according to seasons. They ascertained the source of wealth before they appropriated the products, and therefore they had plenty. Could even the ancient sage-kings cause the five grains invariably to ripen and be harvested and the floods and the droughts never to occur? Yet, none were frozen or starved, why was it? It was because they made full use of the seasons and were frugal in their own maintenance. The history of Xia says that the Deluge lasted seven years in the time of Yu and the history of Yin tells that a drought visited Tang for five years. These are the extremes of disasters. Yet the people were not frozen or starved. Why was this so? The reason lies in diligent production and thrifty consumption.

5 七患:
故曰:以其極賞,以賜無功,虛其府庫,以備車馬、衣裘、奇怪,苦其役徒,以治宮室觀樂;死又厚為棺槨,多為衣裘。生時治臺榭,死又脩墳墓。故民苦於外,府庫單於內,上不厭其樂,下不堪其苦。故國離寇敵則傷,民見凶饑則亡,此皆備不具之罪也。且夫食者,聖人之所寶也。故《》曰:「國無三年之食者,國非其國也;家無三年之食者,子非其子也。」此之謂國備。
The seven causes of...:
(The present rulers) squander great amounts of wealth to reward the undeserving, empty the treasury to acquire carriages and horses, exhaust the labourers to build palaces and furnish amusements. Upon their death, again, thick coffins and many coats and fur coats are to be furnished. Porches and pavilions are built for them while they are living. and tombs when they are dead. By this the people are embittered and the treasury is left lean. While the amusements are not yet satisfying to the superiors, the hardship already becomes unbearable for the subjects. Such a state will fall under any attack and such people will perish by famine. And all this is due to the absence of preparation. Moreover, food is what the sages treasured. The history of Zhou says, "Without three years' food (in store) a state cannot be a state (as it is in danger of losing its sovereignty). A family being without food in store to be sufficient for three years its children cannot be its children (who are in danger of being abandoned or sold to others)." Such, then, is the preparation of a country.

卷二 - Book 2

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館

尚賢中 - Exaltation of the Virtuous II

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館
6 尚賢中:
今王公大人中實將欲治其國家,欲脩保而勿失,胡不察尚賢為政之本也?且以尚賢為政之本者,亦豈獨子墨子之言哉!此聖王之道,先王之距年之言也。傳曰:『求聖君哲人,以裨輔而身』,《湯誓》云:『聿求元聖,與之戮力同心,以治天下。』則此言聖之不失以尚賢使能為政也。故古者聖王唯能審以尚賢使能為政,無異物雜焉,天下皆得其利。古者舜耕歷山,陶河瀕,漁雷澤,堯得之服澤之陽,舉以為天子,與接天下之政,治天下之民。伊摯,有莘氏女之私臣,親為庖人,湯得之,舉以為己相,與接天下之政,治天下之民。傅說被褐帶索。庸築乎傅巖,武丁得之,舉以為三公,與接天下之政,治天下之民。此何故始賤卒而貴,始貧卒而富?則王公大人明乎以尚賢使能為政。是以民無飢而不得食,寒而不得衣,勞而不得息,亂而不得治者。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
If the rulers now want to govern their states so that they will be permanent and unshakeable, why do they not learn that exaltation of the virtuous is the foundation of government? Besides, is this principle merely a conception of Mozi? It is the way of the sage-kings and the tenet of "Ju Nian," a book of an ancient king. And, thus it is recorded: "(He) sought out the wise men to protect and aid you." And thus states the "Oath of Tang": "I then sought for the Great Sage, with whom I might unite my strength and mind to govern the empire." All these show how the sage-kings never failed to exalt the virtuous and employ the capable in government. The sage-kings of old comprehended onlv this -- to exalt the virtuous and employ the capable in government and nobody else; so the whole world was benefited. In times of old, Shun cultivated land at Mt. Li made pottery by the River, and was engaged in fishing in Lake Lei. Yao discovered him at Fuze. Exalting him, Yao made him Emperor and handed to him the government of the empire and the rule over the people. Yi Zhi once served in the bridal party of the daughter of the Prince of Xin, and later voluntarily served Tang as his cook. Tang discovered him. Exalting him, Tang made him his Prime Minister and handed to him the government of the empire and the rule over the people. Fu Yue once wore garments of coarse cloth tied with ropes, working as an artisan at Fu Yan. Wu Ding discovered him. Exalting him, Wu Ding made him High Duke and handed to him the government of the empire and the rule over the people. Why is it that these people starting in humility arrived at honour, starting in poverty arrived at wealth? It is because these rulers understood the importance of exalting the virtuous and employing the capable in government. Therefore, none of the people were hungry yet without food, cold yet without clothing, tired yet without rest, disturbed yet without peace.

7 尚賢中:
故古聖王以審以尚賢使能為政,而取法於天。雖天亦不辯貧富、貴賤、遠邇、親疏、賢者舉而尚之,不肖者抑而廢之。然則富貴為賢,以得其賞者誰也?曰若昔者三代聖王堯、舜、禹、湯、文、武者是也。所以得其賞何也?曰其為政乎天下也,兼而愛之,從而利之,又率天下之萬民以尚尊天、事鬼、愛利萬民,是故天鬼賞之,立為天子,以為民父母,萬民從而譽之曰『聖王』,至今不已。則此富貴為賢,以得其賞者也。然則富貴為暴,以得其罰者誰也?曰若昔者三代暴王桀、紂、幽、厲者是也。何以知其然也?曰其為政乎天下也,兼而憎之,從而賊之,又率天下之民以詬天侮鬼,賊傲萬民,是故天鬼罰之,使身死而為刑戮,子孫離散,室家喪滅,絕無後嗣,萬民從而非之曰「暴王」,至今不已。則此富貴為暴,而以得其罰者也。然則親而不善,以得其罰者誰也?曰若昔者伯鯀,帝之元子,廢帝之德庸,既乃刑之于羽之郊,乃熱照無有及也,帝亦不愛。則此親而不善以得其罰者也。然則天之所使能者誰也?曰若昔者禹、稷、皋陶是也。何以知其然也?先王之呂刑道之曰:『皇帝清問下民,有辭有苗。曰群后之肆在下,明明不常,鰥寡不蓋,德威維威,德明維明。乃名三后,恤功於民,伯夷降典,哲民維刑。禹平水土,主名山川。稷隆播種,農殖嘉穀。三后成功,維假於民。』則此言三聖人者,謹其言,慎其行,精其思慮,索天下之隱事遺利,以上事天,則天鄉其德,下施之萬民,萬民被其利,終身無已。故先王之言曰:『此道也,大用之天下則不窕,小用之則不困,脩用之則萬民被其利,終身無已。』周頌道之曰:『聖人之德,若天之高,若地之普,其有昭於天下也。若地之固,若山之承,不坼不崩。若日之光,若月之明,與天地同常。』則此言聖人之德,章明博大,埴固,以脩久也。故聖人之德蓋總乎天地者也。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
And, the ancient sage-kings in exalting the virtuous and employing the capable in government were following the ways of Heaven. Even Heaven does not discriminate among the poor and the rich, the honourable and the humble, the distant and the near, and the related and the unrelated (to those in power). The virtuous were promoted and exalted; the vicious were kept back and banished. Now, who were those that, possessing wealth and position, still strove after virtues and were rewarded ? They were the sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, namely, Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen and Wu (12). How were they rewarded? When they governed the empire, they loved all the people universally and benefited them, and led them in doing honour to Heaven and service to the spirits. As they loved and benefited the people, Heaven and the spirits rewarded them, appointing them to be Sons of Heaven, and parents of the people. And, thereupon people praised them, calling them sage-kings even unto this day. These then were those that, possessing wealth and position, still strove after virtues and were rewarded. Now, who were those that, possessing wealth and position, yet practiced evil and were punished? They were the wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, namely, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li. How do we know they were those ? When they governed the empire they disliked all the people inclusively and oppressed them and led them to curse Heaven and the spirits. Oppressing and destroying the people, they were punished by Heaven and the spirits; their corpses were mangled and lacerated, their children and grandchildren were scattered and dispersed, their family hearths were extinguished and descendants exterminated. And, thereupon the people railed at them, calling them wicked kings even unto this day. These, then, are those that, possessing wealth and position, yet practised evil and were punished. Now, who were those that were related (to the ruler) but not virtuous and were visited by punishment? Count Gun was of direct royal descent but had degenerated in the royal virtues. So he was banished to the wilderness of Yu Yu where (in the prison) light could not reach him, neither did the emperor show any favour. Such was he who was related but not virtuous and was visited by punishment. Now, who were those that were employed by Heaven because of their capability? Yu, Ji, and Gao Tao were they. How do we know that? It is found in the " Penal Code of Lu," a book of an early king, thus: "The Emperor (Yao) inquired among his subjects, and complaints were made against the Miaos (barbarians)." Again, "As the feudal lords have been appointed without insight, even the widows and the widowers are not protected. Dignity is revered only when it is accompanied with magnanimity; enlightenment is respected only when it is accompanied with magnanimity. Thereupon three chiefs were commissioned to care for and consolate the people: (1) Bo Yi delivered the laws and statutes and taught therewith the people; (2) Yu reduced the Flood and recovered the land, and gave names to hills and rivers; (3) Ji descended (from his rank) and sowed seeds to encourage good farming. The benefits of the achievements of these three chiefs all fell upon the people." This is to say that the three sages were careful in speech, vigilant in conduct, penetrating in thought, studying and planning for every detail and benefit of the world--with this to do service to Heaven on high, Heaven will bless their virtue; to bestow it to the people below, the people will be visited by its benefits lasting beyond their lifetime. Thus said the ancient kings: "Now, this way, when followed broadly to govern the world, will not be found to be too slender; when followed narrowly, will not be too unwieldly; when followed with discretion, will benefit the people beyond their lifetime." Referring to it, the "Eulogy of Zhou" sings: "The virtue of the sage shining upon the world is lofty as Heaven, wide as earth, high as the mountain, unbreakable and infallible; luminating as the sun, brilliant as the moon, eternal with heaven and earth." This is to describe how enlightening and all-embracing, deep-rooted and, therefore, permanent is the virtue of the sage. Therefore the virtue of the sage is really inclusive of heaven and earth.

尚賢下 - Exaltation of the Virtuous III

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館
4 尚賢下:
古者聖王既審尚賢欲以為政,故之竹帛,琢之槃盂,傳以遺後世子孫。於先王之呂刑之然,王曰:『於!來!有國有土,告女訟刑,在今而安百姓,女何擇言人,何敬不刑,何度不及。』能擇人而敬為刑,堯、舜、禹、湯、文、武之道可及也。是何也?則以尚賢及之,於先王之豎年之言然,曰:『晞夫聖、武、知人,以屏輔而身。』此言先王之治天下也,必選擇賢者以為其群屬輔佐。曰今也天下之士君子,皆欲富貴而惡貧賤。曰然。女何為而得富貴而辟貧賤?莫若為賢。為賢之道將柰何?曰有力者疾以助人,有財者勉以分人,有道者勸以教人。若此則飢者得食,寒者得衣,亂者得治。若飢則得食,寒則得衣,亂則得治,此安生生。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
Having understood the principle of exalting the virtuous in government, the ancient sage-kings inscribed it on bamboos and silk and engraved it on the dishes and vases, to hand it down to their descendants. Thus we find in the "Penal Code of Lu", a book of an ancient king, the following: "The king said: 'Ho! come, ye rulers of states and territories, I will tell you how to make punishments a blessing. Now it is yours to give repose to the people: - what should you be most concerned about the choosing of? Should it not be proper men? What should you deal with the most reverently? Should it not be punishments? What should you calculate the most? Should it not be to whom they should reach?'" (This is to say) with insight in choosing men and considerateness in meting punishments, you can catch up with the ways of Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu. How? By exaltation of the virtuous. Again in the book "Shu Nian", another book of an ancient king, we find: "He looked for wise men to protect and aid you." This is to say, when the ancient kings reigned over the empire they invariably selected the virtuous and made them officials and aids. The gentlemen in the world like riches and honour, and dislike poverty and humility. Now how can you obtain the former and avoid the latter? There is no better way than to practise virtue. What then is the way to practise virtue ? Let him who has strength be alert to help others, let him who has wealth endeavour to share it with others, let him who possesses the Dao (the way of nature and life) teach others persuasively. With this, the hungry will be fed, the cold will be clothed, the disturbed will have order. When the hungry are fed, the cold are clothed, and the disturbed have order - this is procuring abundant life.

卷三 - Book 3

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館

尚同中 - Identification with the Superior II

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館
8 尚同中:
今天下之人曰:「方今之時,
天鬼之福可得也。萬民之所便利而能彊從事焉,則萬民之親可得也。其為政若此,是以謀事,舉事成,入守固,
1
上者天鬼有厚乎其為政長也,下者萬民有便利乎其為政長也。天鬼之所深厚而彊從事焉,則
2天下之正長猶未廢乎天下也,而天下之所以亂者,何故之以也?」子墨子曰:「方今之時之以正長,則本與古者異矣,譬之若有苗之以五刑然。昔者聖王制為五刑,以治天下,逮至有苗之制五刑,以亂天下。則此豈刑不善哉?用刑則不善也。是以先王之呂刑之道曰:『苗民否用練折則刑,唯作五殺之刑,曰法。』則此言善用刑者以治民,不善用刑者以為五殺,則此豈刑不善哉?用刑則不善。故遂以為五殺。是以先王之術令之道曰:『唯口出好興戎。』則此言善用口者出好,不善用口者以為讒賊寇戎。則此豈口不善哉?用口則不善也,故遂以為讒賊寇戎。
Identification with the Superior...:
People might then ask: At the present time rulers are not absent from the empire, why then is there disorder in the empire? Mozi said: The political leaders of the present day are quite different from those of old. The case is parallel to that of the Five Punishments with the Prince of Miao. In ancient times, the sage-kings made the code of the Five Punishments and put the empire in order. But when the Prince of Miao established the Five Punishments they unsettled his empire. Can it be that the Punishments are at fault? Really the fault lies in their application. The "Penal Code of Lu" among the books of the ancient kings, says: "Among the people of Miao punishments were applied without employing instruction and admonition. They made a code of five tortures and called it law." This is to say, those who know how to apply punishments can govern the people with them. And those who do not know, make five tortures out of them. Can it be that the punishments are at fault? Only, when their application is not to the point do they become five tortures. And, also, "Shu Ling", among the books of the ancient kings, says: "The same mouth can produce friendship or produce war." This is to say that he who can use the mouth well will produce friendship, and he who cannot will stir up the enemies and the besieging barbarians. Can it be that the mouth is at fault? The fault really lies in its use which stirs up the enemies and the besieging barbarians.

1. 天鬼之福可得也。萬民之所便利而能彊從事焉,則萬民之親可得也。其為政若此,是以謀事,舉事成,入守固, : 移到第7條。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 上者天鬼有厚乎其為政長也,下者萬民有便利乎其為政長也。天鬼之所深厚而彊從事焉,則 : 移到第7條。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

9 尚同中:
故古者之置正長也,將以治民也,譬之若絲縷之有紀,而罔罟之有綱也,將以運役天下淫暴,而一同其義也。是以先王之,《相年》之道曰:「夫建國設都,乃作后王君公,否用泰也,輕大夫師長,否用佚也,維辯使治天均。」則此語古者上帝鬼神之建設國都,立正長也,非高其爵,厚其祿,富貴佚而錯之也,將以為萬民興利除害,富貴貧寡,安危治亂也。故古者聖王之為若此。
Identification with the Superior...:
Hence the installing of the ruler in the ancient days was intended to govern the people. Just as there is one thread to hold together the others in a skein and a main rope to a fishing net, so the ruler is to hold together all the evil and wicked in the empire and bring their purposes into harmony (with their superiors). Thus "Xiang Nian", among the books of the ancient kings, says: "Now the empire is established and the capital is located: (Heaven) installed the emperor, kings, and lords not in order to make them proud, and (Heaven) appointed the ministers and the officials not in order to make them idle - it was to apportion duties among them and charge them with the maintenance of the Heavenly justice." This is to say that when God and the spirits in the past established the capital and installed the rulers, it was not to make their ranks high, and their emoluments substantial, and to give them wealth and honour, and let them live in comfort and free of care. It was really to procure benefits and eliminate adversities for the people, and to enrich the poor and increase the few, and to bring safety where there is danger and to restore order where there is confusion - it was for this that the political leaders were appointed. And so the ancient sage-kings administered their government accordingly.

13 尚同中:
是以先王之周頌》之道之曰:「載來見彼王,聿求厥章。」則此語古者國君諸侯之以春秋來朝聘天子之廷,受天子之嚴教,退而治國,政之所加,莫敢不賓。當此之時,本無有敢紛天子之教者。《》曰:「我馬維駱,六轡沃若,載馳載驅,周爰咨度。」又曰:「我馬維騏,六轡若絲,載馳載驅,周爰咨謀。」即此語也。古者國君諸侯之聞見善與不善也,皆馳驅以告天子,是以賞當賢,罰當暴,不殺不辜,不失有罪,則此尚同之功也。」
Identification with the Superior...:
One of the "Eulogies of Zhou" among the works of the ancient kings says: "They came to see his Majesty. Daily they sought the code of propriety." This describes how in times of old, the feudal lords came to the emperor's court both spring and autumn to receive strict instructions from the emperor and ruled their states accordingly when they returned; and there was none among those who came under such an administration that dared not submit completely. And, at that time, none dared to confuse the instructions from the emperor. And thus runs an Ode: "My team is of white horses with black manes. The six reins look luxuriant. They trot and gallop. The considerations (of the emperor) are all-inclusive." Further: "My team is of dark grey horses. The six reins look like silk. They trot and gallop. The plans (of the emperor) are all-inclusive." This is to say that upon discovering either good or evil the ancient feudal lords always hurriedly drove to the emperor and reported it to him. Therefore rewards fell upon the virtuous and punishment upon the wicked. The innocent was not prosecuted and the guilty was not set free. And all this is the result of practising the principle of Identification with the Superior.

尚同下 - Identification with the Superior III

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館
8 尚同下:
故曰治天下之國若治一家,使天下之民若使一夫。意獨子墨子有此,而先王無此其有邪?則亦然也。聖王皆以尚同為政,故天下治。何以知其然也?於先王之也大誓之言然,曰:「小人見姦巧乃聞,不言也,發罪鈞。」此言見淫辟不以告者,其罪亦猶淫辟者也。
Identification with the Superior...:
Hence the proverb: "To govern the world-empire is the same as to rule a single family clan; to command all the people in the world is the same as to order a single individual." Does any one think that all this is just a fancy of Mozi, and that this teaching did not exist among the sage-kings of old? Really they were of the same opinion. All the sage-kings administered their government by the principle of Identification with the Superior, therefore the world became orderly. How do we know it is so? It is recorded in the "Grand Oath" among the books of the ancient kings: "If an unscrupulous man discovers a case of intrigue and deception and fails to make it known, he shall be punished equally." This is to say that whoever discovers any crime and does not report it will be taken as committing a crime of the same order.

卷四 - Book 4

電子圖書館

兼愛下 - Universal Love III

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館
6 兼愛下:
然而天下之士非兼者之言也,猶1未止也。曰:「兼即仁矣義矣,雖然,豈可為哉?吾譬兼之不可為也,猶挈泰山以超江河也。故兼者直願之也,夫豈可為之物哉?」子墨子曰:「夫挈泰山以趙江河,自古之及今,生民而來,未嘗有也。今若夫兼相愛、交相利,此自先聖六王者親行之。」何知先聖六王之親行之也?子墨子曰:「吾非與之並世同時,親聞其聲,見其色也。以其所於竹帛,鏤於金石,琢於槃盂,傳遺後世子孫者知之。」《泰誓》曰:「文王若日若月,乍照光於四方於西土。」即此言文王之兼愛天下之博大也,譬之日月,兼照天下之無有私也。即此文王兼也。雖子墨子之所謂兼者,於文王取法焉。
Universal Love III:
Yet the objection is still not exhausted. It points out that universal love may be magnanimous and righteous, but how can it be realized? Universal love is impracticable just as carrying Mt. Tai and leaping over rivers. So, then, universal love is but a pious wish, how can it be actualized? Mozi replied: To carry Mt. Tai and leap over rivers is something that has never been accomplished since the existence of man. But universal love and mutual aid has been personally practised by six ancient sage-kings. How do we know they have done it? Mozi said: I am no contemporary of theirs, neither have I heard their voice or seen their faces. The sources of our knowledge lie in what is written on the bamboos and silk, what is engraved in metal and stones, and what is cut in the vessels to be handed down to posterity. The "Great Declaration" proclaims: "King Wen was like the sun and the moon, shedding glorious and resplendent light in the four quarters as well as over the Western land." This is to say that the love of King Wen is so wide and universal that it is like the sun and the moon shining upon the world without partiality. Here is universal love on the part of King Wen; what Mozi has been talking about is really derived from the example of King Wen.

1. 猶 : 原作「獨」。自孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》改。

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