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檢索範圍: 墨家 檢索類型: 段落
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墨子 - Mozi

[春秋 - 戰國] 公元前490年-公元前221年 英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?]
提到《墨子》的書籍 電子圖書館

卷一 - Book 1


七患 - The seven causes of anxiety

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館
3 七患:
The seven causes of...:
Now, if carrying her child and drawing water from a well, a woman dropped the child into the well, she would of course endeavour to get it out. But famine and dearth is a much greater calamity than the dropping of a child. Should there not be also endeavour (to prevent it)? People are gentle and kind when the year is good, but selfish and vicious when it is bad. Yet, how can they be held responsible? When many produce but few consume then there can be no bad year; on the contrary, when few produce but many consume then there can be no good year. Thus it is said: scarcity of supply should stimulate study of the seasons and want of food demands economy of expenditures. The ancients produced wealth according to seasons. They ascertained the source of wealth before they appropriated the products, and therefore they had plenty. Could even the ancient sage-kings cause the five grains invariably to ripen and be harvested and the floods and the droughts never to occur? Yet, none were frozen or starved, why was it? It was because they made full use of the seasons and were frugal in their own maintenance. The history of Xia says that the Deluge lasted seven years in the time of Yu and the history of Yin tells that a drought visited Tang for five years. These are the extremes of disasters. Yet the people were not frozen or starved. Why was this so? The reason lies in diligent production and thrifty consumption.

5 七患:
The seven causes of...:
(The present rulers) squander great amounts of wealth to reward the undeserving, empty the treasury to acquire carriages and horses, exhaust the labourers to build palaces and furnish amusements. Upon their death, again, thick coffins and many coats and fur coats are to be furnished. Porches and pavilions are built for them while they are living. and tombs when they are dead. By this the people are embittered and the treasury is left lean. While the amusements are not yet satisfying to the superiors, the hardship already becomes unbearable for the subjects. Such a state will fall under any attack and such people will perish by famine. And all this is due to the absence of preparation. Moreover, food is what the sages treasured. The history of Zhou says, "Without three years' food (in store) a state cannot be a state (as it is in danger of losing its sovereignty). A family being without food in store to be sufficient for three years its children cannot be its children (who are in danger of being abandoned or sold to others)." Such, then, is the preparation of a country.

卷二 - Book 2

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館

尚賢中 - Exaltation of the Virtuous II

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館
6 尚賢中:
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
If the rulers now want to govern their states so that they will be permanent and unshakeable, why do they not learn that exaltation of the virtuous is the foundation of government? Besides, is this principle merely a conception of Mozi? It is the way of the sage-kings and the tenet of "Ju Nian," a book of an ancient king. And, thus it is recorded: "(He) sought out the wise men to protect and aid you." And thus states the "Oath of Tang": "I then sought for the Great Sage, with whom I might unite my strength and mind to govern the empire." All these show how the sage-kings never failed to exalt the virtuous and employ the capable in government. The sage-kings of old comprehended onlv this -- to exalt the virtuous and employ the capable in government and nobody else; so the whole world was benefited. In times of old, Shun cultivated land at Mt. Li made pottery by the River, and was engaged in fishing in Lake Lei. Yao discovered him at Fuze. Exalting him, Yao made him Emperor and handed to him the government of the empire and the rule over the people. Yi Zhi once served in the bridal party of the daughter of the Prince of Xin, and later voluntarily served Tang as his cook. Tang discovered him. Exalting him, Tang made him his Prime Minister and handed to him the government of the empire and the rule over the people. Fu Yue once wore garments of coarse cloth tied with ropes, working as an artisan at Fu Yan. Wu Ding discovered him. Exalting him, Wu Ding made him High Duke and handed to him the government of the empire and the rule over the people. Why is it that these people starting in humility arrived at honour, starting in poverty arrived at wealth? It is because these rulers understood the importance of exalting the virtuous and employing the capable in government. Therefore, none of the people were hungry yet without food, cold yet without clothing, tired yet without rest, disturbed yet without peace.

7 尚賢中:
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
And, the ancient sage-kings in exalting the virtuous and employing the capable in government were following the ways of Heaven. Even Heaven does not discriminate among the poor and the rich, the honourable and the humble, the distant and the near, and the related and the unrelated (to those in power). The virtuous were promoted and exalted; the vicious were kept back and banished. Now, who were those that, possessing wealth and position, still strove after virtues and were rewarded ? They were the sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, namely, Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen and Wu (12). How were they rewarded? When they governed the empire, they loved all the people universally and benefited them, and led them in doing honour to Heaven and service to the spirits. As they loved and benefited the people, Heaven and the spirits rewarded them, appointing them to be Sons of Heaven, and parents of the people. And, thereupon people praised them, calling them sage-kings even unto this day. These then were those that, possessing wealth and position, still strove after virtues and were rewarded. Now, who were those that, possessing wealth and position, yet practiced evil and were punished? They were the wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, namely, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li. How do we know they were those ? When they governed the empire they disliked all the people inclusively and oppressed them and led them to curse Heaven and the spirits. Oppressing and destroying the people, they were punished by Heaven and the spirits; their corpses were mangled and lacerated, their children and grandchildren were scattered and dispersed, their family hearths were extinguished and descendants exterminated. And, thereupon the people railed at them, calling them wicked kings even unto this day. These, then, are those that, possessing wealth and position, yet practised evil and were punished. Now, who were those that were related (to the ruler) but not virtuous and were visited by punishment? Count Gun was of direct royal descent but had degenerated in the royal virtues. So he was banished to the wilderness of Yu Yu where (in the prison) light could not reach him, neither did the emperor show any favour. Such was he who was related but not virtuous and was visited by punishment. Now, who were those that were employed by Heaven because of their capability? Yu, Ji, and Gao Tao were they. How do we know that? It is found in the " Penal Code of Lu," a book of an early king, thus: "The Emperor (Yao) inquired among his subjects, and complaints were made against the Miaos (barbarians)." Again, "As the feudal lords have been appointed without insight, even the widows and the widowers are not protected. Dignity is revered only when it is accompanied with magnanimity; enlightenment is respected only when it is accompanied with magnanimity. Thereupon three chiefs were commissioned to care for and consolate the people: (1) Bo Yi delivered the laws and statutes and taught therewith the people; (2) Yu reduced the Flood and recovered the land, and gave names to hills and rivers; (3) Ji descended (from his rank) and sowed seeds to encourage good farming. The benefits of the achievements of these three chiefs all fell upon the people." This is to say that the three sages were careful in speech, vigilant in conduct, penetrating in thought, studying and planning for every detail and benefit of the world--with this to do service to Heaven on high, Heaven will bless their virtue; to bestow it to the people below, the people will be visited by its benefits lasting beyond their lifetime. Thus said the ancient kings: "Now, this way, when followed broadly to govern the world, will not be found to be too slender; when followed narrowly, will not be too unwieldly; when followed with discretion, will benefit the people beyond their lifetime." Referring to it, the "Eulogy of Zhou" sings: "The virtue of the sage shining upon the world is lofty as Heaven, wide as earth, high as the mountain, unbreakable and infallible; luminating as the sun, brilliant as the moon, eternal with heaven and earth." This is to describe how enlightening and all-embracing, deep-rooted and, therefore, permanent is the virtue of the sage. Therefore the virtue of the sage is really inclusive of heaven and earth.

尚賢下 - Exaltation of the Virtuous III

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館
4 尚賢下:
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
Having understood the principle of exalting the virtuous in government, the ancient sage-kings inscribed it on bamboos and silk and engraved it on the dishes and vases, to hand it down to their descendants. Thus we find in the "Penal Code of Lu", a book of an ancient king, the following: "The king said: 'Ho! come, ye rulers of states and territories, I will tell you how to make punishments a blessing. Now it is yours to give repose to the people: - what should you be most concerned about the choosing of? Should it not be proper men? What should you deal with the most reverently? Should it not be punishments? What should you calculate the most? Should it not be to whom they should reach?'" (This is to say) with insight in choosing men and considerateness in meting punishments, you can catch up with the ways of Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu. How? By exaltation of the virtuous. Again in the book "Shu Nian", another book of an ancient king, we find: "He looked for wise men to protect and aid you." This is to say, when the ancient kings reigned over the empire they invariably selected the virtuous and made them officials and aids. The gentlemen in the world like riches and honour, and dislike poverty and humility. Now how can you obtain the former and avoid the latter? There is no better way than to practise virtue. What then is the way to practise virtue ? Let him who has strength be alert to help others, let him who has wealth endeavour to share it with others, let him who possesses the Dao (the way of nature and life) teach others persuasively. With this, the hungry will be fed, the cold will be clothed, the disturbed will have order. When the hungry are fed, the cold are clothed, and the disturbed have order - this is procuring abundant life.

卷三 - Book 3

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館

尚同中 - Identification with the Superior II

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館
8 尚同中:
Identification with the Superior...:
People might then ask: At the present time rulers are not absent from the empire, why then is there disorder in the empire? Mozi said: The political leaders of the present day are quite different from those of old. The case is parallel to that of the Five Punishments with the Prince of Miao. In ancient times, the sage-kings made the code of the Five Punishments and put the empire in order. But when the Prince of Miao established the Five Punishments they unsettled his empire. Can it be that the Punishments are at fault? Really the fault lies in their application. The "Penal Code of Lu" among the books of the ancient kings, says: "Among the people of Miao punishments were applied without employing instruction and admonition. They made a code of five tortures and called it law." This is to say, those who know how to apply punishments can govern the people with them. And those who do not know, make five tortures out of them. Can it be that the punishments are at fault? Only, when their application is not to the point do they become five tortures. And, also, "Shu Ling", among the books of the ancient kings, says: "The same mouth can produce friendship or produce war." This is to say that he who can use the mouth well will produce friendship, and he who cannot will stir up the enemies and the besieging barbarians. Can it be that the mouth is at fault? The fault really lies in its use which stirs up the enemies and the besieging barbarians.

1. 天鬼之福可得也。萬民之所便利而能彊從事焉,則萬民之親可得也。其為政若此,是以謀事,舉事成,入守固, : 移到第7條。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 上者天鬼有厚乎其為政長也,下者萬民有便利乎其為政長也。天鬼之所深厚而彊從事焉,則 : 移到第7條。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

9 尚同中:
Identification with the Superior...:
Hence the installing of the ruler in the ancient days was intended to govern the people. Just as there is one thread to hold together the others in a skein and a main rope to a fishing net, so the ruler is to hold together all the evil and wicked in the empire and bring their purposes into harmony (with their superiors). Thus "Xiang Nian", among the books of the ancient kings, says: "Now the empire is established and the capital is located: (Heaven) installed the emperor, kings, and lords not in order to make them proud, and (Heaven) appointed the ministers and the officials not in order to make them idle - it was to apportion duties among them and charge them with the maintenance of the Heavenly justice." This is to say that when God and the spirits in the past established the capital and installed the rulers, it was not to make their ranks high, and their emoluments substantial, and to give them wealth and honour, and let them live in comfort and free of care. It was really to procure benefits and eliminate adversities for the people, and to enrich the poor and increase the few, and to bring safety where there is danger and to restore order where there is confusion - it was for this that the political leaders were appointed. And so the ancient sage-kings administered their government accordingly.

13 尚同中:
Identification with the Superior...:
One of the "Eulogies of Zhou" among the works of the ancient kings says: "They came to see his Majesty. Daily they sought the code of propriety." This describes how in times of old, the feudal lords came to the emperor's court both spring and autumn to receive strict instructions from the emperor and ruled their states accordingly when they returned; and there was none among those who came under such an administration that dared not submit completely. And, at that time, none dared to confuse the instructions from the emperor. And thus runs an Ode: "My team is of white horses with black manes. The six reins look luxuriant. They trot and gallop. The considerations (of the emperor) are all-inclusive." Further: "My team is of dark grey horses. The six reins look like silk. They trot and gallop. The plans (of the emperor) are all-inclusive." This is to say that upon discovering either good or evil the ancient feudal lords always hurriedly drove to the emperor and reported it to him. Therefore rewards fell upon the virtuous and punishment upon the wicked. The innocent was not prosecuted and the guilty was not set free. And all this is the result of practising the principle of Identification with the Superior.

尚同下 - Identification with the Superior III

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館
8 尚同下:
Identification with the Superior...:
Hence the proverb: "To govern the world-empire is the same as to rule a single family clan; to command all the people in the world is the same as to order a single individual." Does any one think that all this is just a fancy of Mozi, and that this teaching did not exist among the sage-kings of old? Really they were of the same opinion. All the sage-kings administered their government by the principle of Identification with the Superior, therefore the world became orderly. How do we know it is so? It is recorded in the "Grand Oath" among the books of the ancient kings: "If an unscrupulous man discovers a case of intrigue and deception and fails to make it known, he shall be punished equally." This is to say that whoever discovers any crime and does not report it will be taken as committing a crime of the same order.

卷四 - Book 4


兼愛下 - Universal Love III

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館
6 兼愛下:
Universal Love III:
Yet the objection is still not exhausted. It points out that universal love may be magnanimous and righteous, but how can it be realized? Universal love is impracticable just as carrying Mt. Tai and leaping over rivers. So, then, universal love is but a pious wish, how can it be actualized? Mozi replied: To carry Mt. Tai and leap over rivers is something that has never been accomplished since the existence of man. But universal love and mutual aid has been personally practised by six ancient sage-kings. How do we know they have done it? Mozi said: I am no contemporary of theirs, neither have I heard their voice or seen their faces. The sources of our knowledge lie in what is written on the bamboos and silk, what is engraved in metal and stones, and what is cut in the vessels to be handed down to posterity. The "Great Declaration" proclaims: "King Wen was like the sun and the moon, shedding glorious and resplendent light in the four quarters as well as over the Western land." This is to say that the love of King Wen is so wide and universal that it is like the sun and the moon shining upon the world without partiality. Here is universal love on the part of King Wen; what Mozi has been talking about is really derived from the example of King Wen.

1. 猶 : 原作「獨」。自孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》改。

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