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《卷三》

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館

尚同上 - Identification with the Superior I

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館
1 尚同上:
子墨子言曰:「古者民始生,未有刑政之時,蓋其語『人異義』。是以一人則一義,二人則二義,十人則十義,其人茲眾,其所謂義者亦茲眾。是以人是其義,以非人之義,故文相非也。是以內者父子兄弟作怨惡,離散不能相和合。天下之百姓,皆以水火毒藥相虧害,至有餘力不能以相勞,腐臭1餘財不以相分,隱匿良道不以相教,天下之亂,若禽獸然。
Identification with the Superior...:
Mozi said: In the beginning of human life, when there was yet no law and government, the custom was "everybody according to his own idea." Accordingly each man had his own idea, two men had two different ideas and ten men had ten different ideas -- the more people the more different notions. And everybody approved of his own view and disapproved the views of others, and so arose mutual disapproval among men. As a result, father and son and elder and younger brothers became enemies and were estranged from each other, since they were unable to reach any agreement. Everybody worked for the disadvantage of the others with water, fire, and poison. Surplus energy was not spent for mutual aid; surplus goods were allowed to rot without sharing; excellent teachings (Dao) were kept secret and not revealed. The disorder in the (human) world could be compared to that among birds and beasts.

1. 臭 : 原作「列」。自孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》改。

2 尚同上:
夫明虖天下之所以亂者,生於無政長。是故選天下之賢可者,立以為天子。天子立,以其力為未足,又選擇天下之賢可者,置立之以為三公。天子三公既以立,以天下為博大,遠國異土之民,是非利害之辯,不可一二而明知,故畫分萬國,立諸侯國君,諸侯國君既已立,以其力為未足,又選擇其國之賢可者,置立之以為正長。
Identification with the Superior...:
Yet all this disorder was due to the want of a ruler. Therefore (Heaven) chose the virtuous in the world and crowned him emperor. Feeling the insufficiency of his capacity, the emperor chose the virtuous in the world and installed them as the three ministers. The emperor and the three ministers, seeing the vastness of the empire and the difficulty of attending to matters of right and wrong and profit and harm among peoples of far countries, divided the empire into feudal states and assigned them to feudal lords. Feeling the insufficiency of their capacity, the feudal lords, in turn, chose the virtuous of their states and appointed them as their officials.

3 尚同上:
正長既已具,天子發政於天下之百姓,言曰:『聞善而不善,皆以告其上。上之所是,必皆是之,所非必皆非之,上有過則規諫之,下有善則傍薦之。上同而不下比者,此上之所賞,而下之所譽也。意若聞善而不善,不以告其上,上之所是,弗能是,上之所非,弗能非,上有過弗規諫,下有善弗傍薦,下比不能上同者,此上之所罰,而百姓所毀也。』上以此為賞罰,甚明察以審信。
Identification with the Superior...:
When the rulers were all installed, the emperor issued a mandate to all the people, saying: "Upon hearing good or evil one shall report it to a superior. What the superior thinks to be right all shall think to be right; what the superior thinks to be wrong all shall think to be wrong. When the superior is at fault there shall be good counsel, when the subordinates show virtue there shall be popular recommendation. To identify one's self with the superior and not to unite one's self with the subordinates - this is what deserves encouragement from above and praise from below." On the other hand, if upon hearing good or evil one should not report to a superior; if what the superior thought to be right one should not think to be right; if what the superior thought to be wrong one should not think to be wrong; if when the superior was at fault there should be no good counsel if when the subordinates showed virtue there should be no popular recommendation; if there should be common cause with subordinates and no identification with the superior - this is what deserves punishment from above and condemnation from below." The superior made this the basis of reward and punishment. He was clear-sighted and won his people's confidence.

4 尚同上:
是故里長者,里之仁人也。里長發政里之百姓,言曰:『聞善而不善,必以告其鄉長。鄉長之所是,必皆是之,鄉長之所非,必皆非之。去若不善言,學鄉長之善言;去若不善行,學鄉長之善行,則鄉何說以亂哉?』察鄉之所治者何也?鄉長唯能壹同鄉之義,是以鄉治也。
Identification with the Superior...:
Now the head of the village was the most high-minded and tender-hearted man of the village. He notified the people of the village, saying: "Upon hearing good or evil you shall report it to the head of the district. What the head of the district thinks to be right, all shall think to be right. What he thinks to be wrong, all shall think to be wrong. Put away from your speech that which is not good and learn his good speech. Remove from your conduct that which is not good and learn his good conduct. How then can there be disorder in the district?" Now, how was order brought about in the district? There was order in the district because the head could unify the standards of the district.

5 尚同上:
鄉長者,鄉之仁人也。鄉長發政鄉之百姓,言曰:『聞善而不善者,必以告國君。國君之所是,必皆是之,國君之所非,必皆非之。去若不善言,學國君之善言,去若不善行,學國君之善行,則國何說以亂哉。』察國之所以治者何也?國君唯能壹同國之義,是以國治也。
Identification with the Superior...:
The head of the district was the most high-minded and tender-hearted man of the district. He notified the people of the district, saying "Upon hearing good or evil you shall report it to the lord. What the lord thinks to be right all shall think to be right, what he thinks to be wrong all shall think to be wrong. Remove from your speech that which is not good and learn his good speech. Take away from your conduct that which is not good and learn his good conduct. How then can there be disorder in the state?" Now, how was order brought about in the feudal state? There was order in the state because the feudal lord could unify the standards in the state.

6 尚同上:
國君者,國之仁人也。國君發政國之百姓,言曰:『聞善而不善。必以告天子。天子之所是,皆是之,天子之所非,皆非之。去若不善言,學天子之善言;去若不善行,學天子之善行,則天下何說以亂哉。』察天下之所以治者何也?天子唯能壹同天下之義,是以天下
1治也。
Identification with the Superior...:
The lord of the state was the most high-minded and tender-hearted man of the state. He notified the people of the state, saying: "Upon hearing good or evil you shall report it to the emperor. What the emperor thinks to be right all shall think to be right; what the emperor thinks to be wrong all shall think to be wrong. Take away from your speech that which is not good and learn his good speech. Remove from your conduct that which is not good and learn his good conduct. How then can there be disorder in the empire?" Now, how is order brought about in the empire? There was order in the empire because the emperor could unify the standards in the empire.

1. 以 : 刪除。

7 尚同上:
天下之百姓皆上同於天子,而不上同於天,則菑猶未去也。今若天飄風苦雨,溱溱而至者,此天之所以罰百姓之不上同於天者也。」
Identification with the Superior...:
If, however, the people all identify themselves with the Son of Heaven but not with Heaven itself, then the jungle is still unremoved. Now, the frequent visitations of hurricanes and torrents are just the punishments from Heaven upon the people for their not identifying their standards with the Will of Heaven.

8 尚同上:
是故子墨子言曰:「古者聖王為五刑,請以治其民。譬若絲縷之有紀,罔罟之有綱,所連收天下之百姓不尚同其上者也。」
Identification with the Superior...:
Therefore, Mozi said: The sage-kings of old devised the five punishments to rule the people in order to be able to lay hands on those who did not identify themselves with their superiors - a device of the same nature as threads are tied into skeins and a net is controlled by a main rope.

尚同中 - Identification with the Superior II

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館
1 尚同中:
子墨子曰:「方今之時,復古之民始生,未有正長之時,蓋其語曰『天下之人異義』。是以一人一義,十人十義,百人百義,其人數茲眾,其所謂義者亦茲眾。是以人是其義,而非人之義,故相交非也。內之父子兄弟作怨讎,皆有離散之心,不能相和合。至乎舍餘力不以相勞,隱匿良道不以相教,腐臭餘財不以相分,天下之亂也,至如禽獸然,無君臣上下長幼之節,父子兄弟之禮,是以天下亂焉。
Identification with the Superior...:
Mozi said: As we look back to the time when there was yet no ruler, it seems the custom was "everybody in the world according to his own standard." Accordingly each man had his own standard, ten men had ten different standards, a hundred men had a hundred different standards - the more people the more standards. And everybody approved of his own view and disapproved those of others, and so arose mutual disapproval. Even father and son and brothers became enemies, since they were unable to reach any agreement. Surplus energy was not employed for mutual help; excellent teachings (Dao) were kept secret; surplus goods were allowed to rot without sharing. The disorder in the (human) world could be compared with that among birds and beasts. The lack of regulations governing the relationships between ruler and subject, between superior and subordinate, and between elder and younger; and the absence of rules governing the relationships between father and son and between older and younger brothers, resulted in disorder in the world.

2 尚同中:
明乎民之無正長以一同天下之義,而天下亂也。是故選擇天下賢良聖知辯慧之人,立以為天子,使從事乎一同天下之義。天子既以立矣,以為唯其耳目之請,不能獨一同天下之義,是故選擇天下贊閱賢良聖知辯慧之人,置以為三公,與從事乎一同天下之義。天子三公既已立矣,以為天下博大,山林遠土之民,不可得而一也,是故靡分天下,設以為萬諸侯國君,使從事乎一同其國之義。國君既已立矣,又以為唯其耳目之請,不能一同其國之義,是故擇其國之賢者,置以為左右將軍大夫,以遠至乎鄉里之長與從事乎一同其國之義。
Identification with the Superior...:
Knowing the cause of the confusion to be in the absence of a ruler who could unify the standards in the world, (Heaven) chose the virtuous, sagacious, and wise in the world and crowned him emperor, charging him with the duty of unifying the wills in the empire. Having been crowned, the emperor, realizing the impossibility of unifying the world just by his own senses of hearing and sight, chose the understanding, virtuous, sagacious, and wise of the world and installed them as the three ministers, sharing with them the duty of unifying the standards in the empire. The emperor and the three ministers being in office, they felt the vastness of the empire and the difficulty of unifying all the peoples in mountains and woods and those far distant. Therefore they systematically divided up the empire, and appointed numerous feudal lords, charging these with the duty of unifying the standards in each state. The feudal lords in turn felt the difficulty of unifying the standards in their states just by their own senses of hearing and sight. Therefore they chose the virtuous of the state to be their ministers and secretaries and all the way down to the heads of districts and villages, sharing with them the duty of unifying the standards in the state.

3 尚同中:
天子諸侯之君,民之正長,既已定矣,天子為發政施教曰:『凡聞見善者,必以告其上,聞見不善者,亦必以告其上。上之所是,必亦是之,上之所非,必亦非之,已有善傍薦之,上有過規諫之。尚同義其上,而毋有下比之心,上得則賞之,萬民聞則譽之。意若聞見善,不以告其上,聞見不善,亦不以告其上,上之所是不能是,上之所非不能非,己有善不能傍薦之,上有過不能規諫之,下比而非其上者,上得則誅罰之,萬民聞則非毀之』。故古者聖王之為刑政賞譽也,甚明察以審信。
Identification with the Superior...:
When the lords of the country and the heads of the people had been appointed, the emperor issued mandates, instructing the people: "Discovering good you must report it to your superior, discovering evil you must report it to your superior. What the superior thinks to be right all shall think to be right; what the superior thinks to be wrong all shall think to be wrong. When there is virtue among the people there shall be popular recommendation; when the superior is at fault there shall be good counsel. You shall identify yourself with the superior and not associate with your subordinates. So doing, one deserves encouragement from his superiors and praise from the people. "On the other hand, if upon discovering good you should not report it and upon discovering evil you should not report it; if you should not think to be right what the superior thinks to be right, and wrong what the superior thinks to be wrong; if there should be no recommendation when there is virtue among the people and no good counsel when the superior is at fault; and if you should unite with the subordinates but differ from the superior - you deserve heavy punishment from your superiors and condemnation from the people." Therefore the sage-kings of old were very judicious and faithful in their punishments and rewards.

4 尚同中:
是以舉天下之人,皆欲得上之賞譽,而畏上之毀罰。是故里長順天子政,而一同其里之義。里長既同其里之義,率其里之萬民,以尚同乎鄉長,曰:『凡里之萬民,皆尚同乎鄉長,而不敢下比。鄉長之所是,必亦是之,鄉長之所非,必亦非之。去而不善言,學鄉長之善言;去而不善行,學鄉長之善行。鄉長固鄉之賢者也,舉鄉人以法鄉長,夫鄉何說而不治哉?』察鄉長之所以治鄉者何故之以也?曰唯以其能一同其鄉之義,是以鄉治。
Identification with the Superior...:
And so all the people aspired to the rewards and commendation from the superior and dreaded his condemnation and punishment. Thereupon, in accord with the policy of the emperor, the village head proceeded to unify the purposes in the village. Having accomplished this, he led the people of the village to identify themselves with the head of the district, saying: "All you people of the village are to identify yourselves with the head of the district, and are not to unite with the subordinates. What the head of the district thinks to be right all shall think to be right; what he thinks to be wrong all shall think to be wrong. Put away your evil speech and learn his good speech; put away your evil conduct and learn his good conduct. For the head of the district is naturally the (most) virtuous of the district. If all the people in the district follow the example of their head, how then can the district be disorderly?" Now, how is it that the head of the district was so successfuI in governing the district? It was just because he could unify the purposes of the whole district that the district was so orderly.

5 尚同中:
鄉長治
1其鄉,而鄉既已治矣,有率其鄉萬民,以尚同乎國君,曰:『凡鄉之萬民,皆上同乎國君,而不敢下比。國君之所是,必亦是之,國君之所非,必亦非之。去而不善言,學國君之善言;去而不善行,學國君之善行。國君固國之賢者也,舉國人以法國君,夫國何說而不治哉?』察國君之所以治國,而國治者,何故之以也?曰唯以其能一同其國之義,是以國治。
Identification with the Superior...:
Having accomplished this he in turn led the people of his district to identify themselves with the feudal lord, saying: "All you people of the district shall identify yourselves with the lord of the state, and shall not unite with the subordinates. What the lord thinks to be right all shall think to be right; what he thinks to be wrong all shall think to be wrong. Put away your evil speech and learn his good speech; put away your evil conduct and learn his good conduct. For the lord of the state is naturally the (most) virtuous of the state. If all the people in the state follow the example of their lord, how then can the state be in disorder?" Now, why was the feudal lord so successful in governing the state? It was just because he could unify the purposes in the state that the state is orderly.

1. 鄉長治 : 舊脫。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

6 尚同中:
國君治其國,而
1既已治矣,有率其國之萬民,以尚同乎天子,曰:『凡國之萬民上同乎天子,而不敢下比。天子之所是,必亦是之,天子之所非,必亦非之。去而不善言,學天子之善言;去而不善行,學天子之善行。天子者,固天下之仁人也,舉天下之萬民以法天子,夫天下何說而不治哉?』察天子之所以治天下者,何故之以也?曰唯以其能一同天下之義,是以天下治。
Identification with the Superior...:
Having accomplished this he in turn led the people of his state to identify themselves with the emperor, saying: "All you people of the state shall identify yourselves with the emperor and shall not unite with the subordinates. What the emperor thinks to be right all shall think to be right; what he thinks to be wrong all shall think to be wrong. Put away your evil speech and learn his good speech; put away your evil conduct and learn his good conduct. For the emperor is naturally the (most) high-minded and tender-hearted man of the empire. If all the people of the empire follow his example, how then can the state be disorderly?" Now, why was the emperor so successful in governing the empire? It was just because he could unify the purposes in the empire that the empire is orderly.

1. 國 : 舊脫。

7 尚同中:
夫既尚同乎天子,而未上同乎天者,則天菑將猶未止也。故當若天降寒熱不節,雪霜雨露不時,五穀不孰,六畜不遂,疾菑戾疫、飄風苦雨,荐臻而至者,此天之降罰也,將以罰下人之不尚同乎天者也。故古者聖王,明天鬼之所欲,而避天鬼之所憎,以求興天下之利,除天下之害。是以率天下之萬民,齊戒沐浴,潔為酒醴粢盛,以祭祀天鬼。其事鬼神也,酒醴粢盛不敢不蠲潔,犧牲不敢不腯肥,珪璧幣帛不敢不中度量,春秋祭祀不敢失時幾,聽獄不敢不中,分財不敢不均,居處不敢怠慢。曰其為正長若此,是故
上者天鬼有厚乎其為政長也,下者萬民有便利乎其為政長也。天鬼之所深厚而彊從事焉,則
1
天鬼之福可得也。萬民之所便利而能彊從事焉,則萬民之親可得也。其為政若此,是以謀事,舉事成,入守固,
2出誅勝者,何故之以也?曰唯以尚同為政者也。故古者聖王之為政若此。」
Identification with the Superior...:
But to carry the process of identification with the superior up to the Son of Heaven and not further up to Heaven itself -- then the jungle from Heaven is yet unremoved. Thereupon Heaven would send down cold and heat without moderation, and snow, frost, rain, and dew untimely. As a result, the five grains could not ripen and the six animals could not mature; and there would be disease, epidemics, and pestilence. Now the repeated visitations of hurricanes and torrents are just punishments from Heaven - punishments to the people below for not identifying themselves with it. Therefore the sage-kings of old appreciated what Heaven and the spirits desire and avoided what they abominate, in order to increase benefits and to avoid calamities in the world. With purification and baths and clean wine and cakes they led the people to make sacrifice and libation to Heaven and the spirits. In such services to the spirits they dared not use wine and cakes that were unclean, sacrificial animals that were not fat, or jade and silk that did not satisfy the standard requirements. The proper time for the spring and autumn sacrifices they dared not miss. Judging lawsuits, they dared not be unjust. Distributing properties, they dared not be unfair. Even when at leisure they dared not be disrespectful. When the sage-kings made such (good) rulers, Heaven and the spirits commended their leadership from above, and the people cherished it from below. To work under the hearty approval of Heaven and the spirits is to obtain their blessings. To work under the appreciation of the people is to obtain their confidence. Administering the government like this, consequently they would succeed in planning, accomplish their ends in executing, be strong in defence and victorious in attack. And the reason for all this lies in their employing the principle of Identification with the Superior in government. And this is how the sage-kings of old administered their government.

1. 上者天鬼有厚乎其為政長也,下者萬民有便利乎其為政長也。天鬼之所深厚而彊從事焉,則 : 從第8條移到此處。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 天鬼之福可得也。萬民之所便利而能彊從事焉,則萬民之親可得也。其為政若此,是以謀事,舉事成,入守固, : 從第8條移到此處。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

8 尚同中:
今天下之人曰:「方今之時,
天鬼之福可得也。萬民之所便利而能彊從事焉,則萬民之親可得也。其為政若此,是以謀事,舉事成,入守固,
1
上者天鬼有厚乎其為政長也,下者萬民有便利乎其為政長也。天鬼之所深厚而彊從事焉,則
2天下之正長猶未廢乎天下也,而天下之所以亂者,何故之以也?」子墨子曰:「方今之時之以正長,則本與古者異矣,譬之若有苗之以五刑然。昔者聖王制為五刑,以治天下,逮至有苗之制五刑,以亂天下。則此豈刑不善哉?用刑則不善也。是以先王之書呂刑之道曰:『苗民否用練折則刑,唯作五殺之刑,曰法。』則此言善用刑者以治民,不善用刑者以為五殺,則此豈刑不善哉?用刑則不善。故遂以為五殺。是以先王之書術令之道曰:『唯口出好興戎。』則此言善用口者出好,不善用口者以為讒賊寇戎。則此豈口不善哉?用口則不善也,故遂以為讒賊寇戎。
Identification with the Superior...:
People might then ask: At the present time rulers are not absent from the empire, why then is there disorder in the empire? Mozi said: The political leaders of the present day are quite different from those of old. The case is parallel to that of the Five Punishments with the Prince of Miao. In ancient times, the sage-kings made the code of the Five Punishments and put the empire in order. But when the Prince of Miao established the Five Punishments they unsettled his empire. Can it be that the Punishments are at fault? Really the fault lies in their application. The "Penal Code of Lu" among the books of the ancient kings, says: "Among the people of Miao punishments were applied without employing instruction and admonition. They made a code of five tortures and called it law." This is to say, those who know how to apply punishments can govern the people with them. And those who do not know, make five tortures out of them. Can it be that the punishments are at fault? Only, when their application is not to the point do they become five tortures. And, also, "Shu Ling", among the books of the ancient kings, says: "The same mouth can produce friendship or produce war." This is to say that he who can use the mouth well will produce friendship, and he who cannot will stir up the enemies and the besieging barbarians. Can it be that the mouth is at fault? The fault really lies in its use which stirs up the enemies and the besieging barbarians.

1. 天鬼之福可得也。萬民之所便利而能彊從事焉,則萬民之親可得也。其為政若此,是以謀事,舉事成,入守固, : 移到第7條。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 上者天鬼有厚乎其為政長也,下者萬民有便利乎其為政長也。天鬼之所深厚而彊從事焉,則 : 移到第7條。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

9 尚同中:
故古者之置正長也,將以治民也,譬之若絲縷之有紀,而罔罟之有綱也,將以運役天下淫暴,而一同其義也。是以先王之書,《相年》之道曰:「夫建國設都,乃作后王君公,否用泰也,輕大夫師長,否用佚也,維辯使治天均。」則此語古者上帝鬼神之建設國都,立正長也,非高其爵,厚其祿,富貴佚而錯之也,將以為萬民興利除害,富貴貧寡,安危治亂也。故古者聖王之為若此。
Identification with the Superior...:
Hence the installing of the ruler in the ancient days was intended to govern the people. Just as there is one thread to hold together the others in a skein and a main rope to a fishing net, so the ruler is to hold together all the evil and wicked in the empire and bring their purposes into harmony (with their superiors). Thus "Xiang Nian", among the books of the ancient kings, says: "Now the empire is established and the capital is located: (Heaven) installed the emperor, kings, and lords not in order to make them proud, and (Heaven) appointed the ministers and the officials not in order to make them idle - it was to apportion duties among them and charge them with the maintenance of the Heavenly justice." This is to say that when God and the spirits in the past established the capital and installed the rulers, it was not to make their ranks high, and their emoluments substantial, and to give them wealth and honour, and let them live in comfort and free of care. It was really to procure benefits and eliminate adversities for the people, and to enrich the poor and increase the few, and to bring safety where there is danger and to restore order where there is confusion - it was for this that the political leaders were appointed. And so the ancient sage-kings administered their government accordingly.

10 尚同中:
今王公大人之為刑政則反此。政以為便譬,宗於父兄故舊,以為左右,置以為正長。民知上置正長之非正以治民也,是以皆比周隱匿,而莫肯尚同其上。是故上下不同義。若苟上下不同義,賞譽不足以勸善,而刑罰不足以沮暴。何以知其然也?
Identification with the Superior...:
The lords at the present, however, do just the reverse. Administration is carried on to court flattery. Fathers and brothers and other relatives and friends are placed at the right and left and appointed rulers of the people. Knowing that the superior appointed the rulers not for the welfare of the people, the people all kept aloof and would not identify themselves with the superior. Therefore purposes of the superior and the subordinates are not unified. This being so, rewards and commendations would not encourage the people to do good, and punishments and fines would not restrain them from doing evil. How do we know this would be so?

11 尚同中:
曰:上唯毋立而為政乎國家,為民正長,曰:「人可賞吾,將賞之。」若苟上下不同義,上之所賞,則眾之所非,曰人眾與處,於眾得非。則是雖使得上之賞,未足以勸乎!上唯毋立而為政乎國家,為民正長,曰:「人可罰,吾將罰之。」若苟上下不同義,上之所罰,則眾之所譽。曰人眾與處,於眾得譽,則是雖使得上之罰,未足以沮乎!若立而為政乎國家,為民正長,賞譽不足以勸善,而刑罰不可以沮暴,則是不與鄉吾本言「民始生未有正長之時」同乎!若有正長與無正長之時同,則此非所以治民一眾之道。
Identification with the Superior...:
In governing the country, the ruler proclaims "Whoever deserves reward I will reward." Suppose the purposes of the superior and the subordinates are different,whoever is rewarded by the superior would be condemned by the public. And in community life the condemnation of the public is supreme. Though there is reward from the superior, it will not be an encouragement. In governing the country, again, the ruler proclaims: "Whoever deserves punishment I will punish." Suppose the purposes of the superior and the subordinates are different, whoever is punished by the superior would be applauded by the public. And in community life the approval of the public is supreme. Though there is punishment from the superior, it will not be an obstruction. Now, in governing the country and ruling the people, if rewards cannot encourage the people to do good and punishments cannot restrain them from doing evil, is this not just the same as in the beginning of human life when there were no rulers? If it is the same with rulers or without them, it is not the way to govern the people and unify the multitude.

12 尚同中:
故古者聖王唯而
1以尚同,以為正長,是
2上下情請為通。上有隱事遺利,下得而利之;下有蓄怨積害,上得而除之。是以數千萬里之外,有為善者,其室人未遍知,鄉里未遍聞,天子得而賞之。數千萬里之外,有為不善者,其室人未遍知,鄉里未遍聞,天子得而罰之。是以舉天下之人皆恐懼振動惕慄,不敢為淫暴,曰:「天子之視聽也神。」先王之言曰:「非神也,夫唯能使人之耳目助己視聽,使人之吻助己言談,使人之心助己思慮,使人之股肱助己動作」。助之視聽者眾,則其所聞見者遠矣;助之言談者眾,則其德音之所撫循者博矣;助之思慮者眾,則其談謀度速得矣;助之動作者眾,即其舉事速成矣。故古者聖人之所以濟事成功,垂名於後世者,無他故異物焉,曰唯能以尚同為政者也。
Identification with the Superior...:
As the ancient sage-kings could observe the principle of Identification with the Superior, when they became rulers the purposes of the superior and the subordinates became interchangeable. If the superior reserved for himself special facilities the subordinates could share them. If the people had any unrighted wrongs or accumulated injuries, the superior would remove them. Therefore, if there was a virtuous man thousands of li away, though his clansmen did not all know it (the fact) and people in the same district did not all know it, the emperor could reward him. And if there was an evil man thousands of li away, though his clansmen did not all know it (the fact) and people in the same village did not all know it, the emperor could punish him. Thereupon all the people in the world were astonished, and carefully avoided doing evil, saying: "The emperor is like a spirit in his hearing and sight." But the ancient kings said: "It was no spirit but only the ability to make use of others' ears and eyes to help one's own hearing and sight, to make use of others' lips to help one's own speech, to make use of others' minds to help one's own thought, to make use of others' limbs to help one's own actions." When there are many to help one's hearing and sight then of course one can hear and see far; when there are many to help one's speech then one's good counsel can comfort many; when there are many to help one's thought then one's plans can be shaped speedily; when there are many to help one's actions then one can accomplish one's undertaking quickly. So there was no other reason for the success and great fame of the ancient sages than that they could carry out the principle of Identification with the Superior in their administration.

1. 審 : 舊脫。
2. 故 : 舊脫。

13 尚同中:
是以先王之書《周頌》之道之曰:「載來見彼王,聿求厥章。」則此語古者國君諸侯之以春秋來朝聘天子之廷,受天子之嚴教,退而治國,政之所加,莫敢不賓。當此之時,本無有敢紛天子之教者。《》曰:「我馬維駱,六轡沃若,載馳載驅,周爰咨度。」又曰:「我馬維騏,六轡若絲,載馳載驅,周爰咨謀。」即此語也。古者國君諸侯之聞見善與不善也,皆馳驅以告天子,是以賞當賢,罰當暴,不殺不辜,不失有罪,則此尚同之功也。」
Identification with the Superior...:
One of the "Eulogies of Zhou" among the works of the ancient kings says: "They came to see his Majesty. Daily they sought the code of propriety." This describes how in times of old, the feudal lords came to the emperor's court both spring and autumn to receive strict instructions from the emperor and ruled their states accordingly when they returned; and there was none among those who came under such an administration that dared not submit completely. And, at that time, none dared to confuse the instructions from the emperor. And thus runs an Ode: "My team is of white horses with black manes. The six reins look luxuriant. They trot and gallop. The considerations (of the emperor) are all-inclusive." Further: "My team is of dark grey horses. The six reins look like silk. They trot and gallop. The plans (of the emperor) are all-inclusive." This is to say that upon discovering either good or evil the ancient feudal lords always hurriedly drove to the emperor and reported it to him. Therefore rewards fell upon the virtuous and punishment upon the wicked. The innocent was not prosecuted and the guilty was not set free. And all this is the result of practising the principle of Identification with the Superior.

14 尚同中:
是故子墨子曰:「今天下之王公大人士君子,請將欲富其國家,眾其人民,治其刑政,定其社稷,當若尚同之不可不察,此之本也。」
Identification with the Superior...:
Therefore, Mozi said: Now, if the rulers and the gentlemen of the world sincerely desire to enrich their country and multiply their people, and to put the government and jurisdiction in order and stabilize the state - if so, then they cannot afford to fail to understand the principle of Identification with the Superior, which is the foundation of government.

尚同下 - Identification with the Superior III

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?] 電子圖書館
1 尚同下:
子墨子言曰:「知者之事,必計國家百姓所以治者而為之,必計國家百姓之所以亂者而辟之。然計國家百姓之所以治者何也?上之為政,得下之情則治,不得下之情則亂。何以知其然也?上之為政,得下之情,則是明於民之1善非也。若苟2明於民之善非也,則得善人而賞之,得暴人而罰之也。善人賞而暴人罰,則國必治。上之為政也,不得下之情,則是不明於民之善非也。若苟不明於民之善非,則是不得善人而賞之,不得暴人而罰之。善人不賞而暴人不罰,為政若此,國眾必亂。故賞不得下之情,而不可不察者也。」
Identification with the Superior...:
Mozi said: The interest of the wise (ruler) lies in carrying out what makes for order among the people and avoiding what makes for confusion. But what is it that makes for order among the people? When the administration of the ruler answers to the desires of the people there will be order, otherwise there will be confusion. How do we know it is so? When the administration of the ruler answers to the desires of the subjects, it manifests an understanding of the approvals and disapprovals of the people. When there is such an understanding, the good will be discovered and rewarded and the bad will be discovered and punished, and the country will surely have order. When the administration of the ruler does not answer to the desires of the subjects, it shows a lack of understanding of the approvals and disapprovals of the subjects. When there is no such understanding then the good wiII not be discovered and rewarded and the bad will not be discovered and punished. With the good unrewarded and the evil unpunished, such a government will surely put the country into disorder. Therefore when rewards and punishments do not answer to the desires of the people, the matter has to be carefully looked into.

1. 於民之 : 原作「民於」。
2. 若苟 : 原作「苟若」。自孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》改。

2 尚同下:
然計得下之情將柰何可?故子墨子曰:「唯能以尚同一義為政,然後可矣。何以知尚同一義之可而為政於天下也?然胡不審稽古之治為政之說乎。古者,天之始生民,未有正長也,百姓為人。若苟百姓為人,是一人一義,十人十義,百人百義,千人千義,逮至人之眾不可勝計也,則其所謂義者,亦不可勝計。此皆是其義,而非人之義,是以厚者有鬥,而薄者有爭。是故天下之欲同一天下之義也,是故選擇賢者,立為天子。天子以其知力為未足獨治天下,是以選擇其次立為三公。三公又以其知力為未足獨左右天子也,是以分國建諸侯。諸侯又以其知力為未足獨治其四境之內也,是以選擇其次立為卿之宰。卿之宰又以其知力為未足獨左右其君也,是以選擇其次立而為鄉長家君。是故古者天子之立三公、諸侯、卿之宰、鄉長家君,非特富貴游佚而擇之也,將使助治亂刑政也。故古者建國設都,乃立后王君公,奉以卿士師長,此非欲用說也,唯辯而使助治天
1明也。
Identification with the Superior...:
But how can the desires of the people (being so many and various) be met? Therefore Mozi said: It can be done only by adopting the principle of Identification with the Superior in government. How do we know the principle of Identification with the Superior can govern the empire? Why not then examine the administration and the theory of government of the ancient times? In the beginning there was no ruler and everybody was independent. Since every one was independent, there would be one purpose when there was one man, ten purposes when there were ten men, a hundred purposes when there were a hundred men, a thousand purposes when there were a thousand men and so on until the number of men became innumerable and the number of different purposes became innumerable with it. And all of them approved their own ideas and disapproved those of others. And there was strife among the strong and struggle among the weak. Thereupon Heaven wished to unify the standards in the world. The virtuous was selected and made emperor. Conscious of the insufficiency of his power alone to govern the empire, the emperor chose the next best (in virtue and wisdom) and honoured them to be the three ministers. Conscious of the insufficiency of their powers alone to assist the emperor, the three ministers in turn divided the empire into feudal states and assigned them to feudal lords. Conscious of the insufficiency of his power alone to govern all that were within his four borders, the feudal lord in turn selected his next best and commissioned them ministers and secretaries. Conscious of the insufficiency of their power alone to assist their feudal lord, the ministers and secretaries again selected their next best and appointed them district heads and clan patriarchs. Therefore, in appointing the three ministers, the feudal lords, the ministers and secretaries, and the district heads and clan patriarchs, the emperor was not selecting them for wealth and honour, leisure and ease. It was to employ them to help in administration and jurisdiction. Hence, when Heaven established the empire and located the capital and commissioned the sovereign, kings, lords, and dukes, and appointed secretaries, scholars, professors, and elders - it was not to give them ease, but only to divide up the task and let them help carry out the light of Heaven.

1. 助 : 刪除。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

3 尚同下:
今此何為人上而不能治其下,為人下而不能事其上,則是上下相賊也,何故以然?則義不同也。若苟義不同者有黨,上以若人為善,將賞之,若人唯使得上之賞,而辟百姓之毀,是以為善者,必未可使勸,見有賞也。上以若人為暴,將罰之,若人唯使得上之罰,而懷百姓之譽,是以為暴者,必未可使沮,見有罰也。故計上之賞譽,不足以勸善,計其毀罰,不足以沮暴。此何故以然?
則義不同也。
1
Identification with the Superior...:
Why are the superiors now unable to govern their subordinates, and the subordinates unwilling to serve their superiors? It is because of a mutual disregard. What is the reason for this? The reason is a difference in standards. Whenever standards differ there will be opposition. The ruler may think a man good and reward him. The man, though rewarded by the ruler, yet by the same act provokes the condemnation of the people. Therefore those who do good are not necessarily encouraged by rewards. The ruler may think a man evil and punish him. This man, though punished by the ruler, yet at the same time receives the approval of the people. Therefore those who do evil are not necessarily obstructed by punishments. Thus reward and honour from the ruler cannot encourage the good and his denunciation and punishment cannot prevent the evil. What is the reason for this? The reason is a difference in standards.

1. 則義不同也。 : 舊脫。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

4 尚同下:
1則欲同一天下之義,將柰何可?故子墨子言曰:「然胡不賞使家君試用家君,發憲布令其家,曰:『若見愛利家者,必以告,若見惡賊家者,亦必以告。若見愛利家以告,亦猶愛利家者也,上得且賞之,眾聞則譽之,若見惡賊家不以告,亦猶惡賊家者也,上得且罰之,眾聞則非之。』是以遍若家之人,皆欲得其長上之賞譽,辟其毀罰。是以善言之,
不善言之,
2家君得善人而賞之,得暴人而罰之。善人之賞,而暴人之罰,則家必治矣。然計若家之所以治者何也?唯以尚同一義為政故也。
Identification with the Superior...:
But how can the standards in the world be unified? Mozi said: Why not let each member of the clan organize his purposes and identify them with those of the patriarch? And let the patriarch give laws and proclaim to the clan: "Whoever discovers a benefactor to the clan shall report it; whoever discovers a malefactor to the clan shall report it. Whoever reports the benefactor of the clan upon seeing one is equivalent to benefiting the clan himself. Knowing him the superior will reward him, hearing of him the group will praise him. Whoever fails to report a malefactor of the clan upon seeing one is equivalent to doing evil to the clan himself. Knowing him the superior will punish him, hearing of him the group will condemn him." Thereupon all the members of the clan wish to obtain reward and honor and avoid denunciation and punishment from their superior. Seeing the good they will report; seeing the evil they will report. And the patriarch can reward the good and punish the evil. With the good rewarded and the evil punished, the clan will surely have order. Now, why is it that the clan becomes orderly? Just because the administration is based on the principle of Identification with the Superior.

1. 然 : 舊脫。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 不善言之, : 舊脫。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

5 尚同下:
家既已治,國之道盡此已邪?則未也。國之為家數也甚多,此皆是其家,而非人之家,是以厚者有亂,而薄者有爭,故又使家君總其家之
1,以尚同於國君。國君亦為發憲布令於國之眾,曰:『若見愛利國者,必以告,若見惡賊國者,亦必以告。若見愛利國以告者,亦猶愛利國者也,上得且賞之,眾聞則譽之,若見惡賊國不以告者,亦猶惡賊國者也,上得且罰之,眾聞則非之。』是以遍若國之人,皆欲得其長上之賞譽,避其毀罰。是以民見善者言之,見不善者言之,國君得善人而賞之,得暴人而罰之。善人賞而暴人罰,則國必治矣。然計若國之所以治者何也?唯能以尚同一義為政故也。
Identification with the Superior...:
Now that the clan is in order, is that all there is of the way of governing the feudal state? By no means. The state is composed of many clans. They all like their own clan and dislike other clans. And there is strife among the strong and struggle among the weak. Therefore the clan patriarchs should again organize the purposes in the clan and identify them with those of the feudal lord. The feudal lord also should give laws and should proclaim to the state: "Whoever discovers a benefactor of the state shall report it; whoever discovers a malefactor of the state shall report it. Whoever reports a benefactor of the state upon seeing one is equivalent to benefiting the state himself. Knowing him the superior will reward him, hearing of him the people will praise him. Whoever fails to report a malefactor of the state upon seeing one is equivalent to doing evil to the state himself. Knowing him the superior will punish him, hearing of him the people will condemn him." Thereupon all people in the state wish to obtain reward and honour and avoid denunciation and punishment from their superior. Seeing the good they will report, seeing the evil they will report. And the feudal lord can reward the good and punish the evil. With the good rewarded and the evil punished, the feudal state will surely have order. Now, why is it that the state becomes orderly? Just because the administration is based on the principle of Identification with the Superior.

1. 義 : 舊脫。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

6 尚同下:
國既已治矣,天下之道盡此已邪?則未也。天下之為國數也甚多,此皆是其國,而非人之國,是以厚者有戰,而薄者有爭。故又使國君選其國之義,以尚同於天子。天子亦為發憲布令於天下之眾,曰:『若見愛利天下者,必以告,若見惡賊天下者,亦以告。若見愛利天下以告者,亦猶愛利天下者也,上得則賞之,眾聞則譽之。若見惡賊天下不以告者,亦猶惡賊天下者也,上得且罰之,眾聞則非之。』是以遍天下之人,皆欲得其長上之賞譽,避其毀罰,是以見善不善者告之。天子得善人而賞之,得暴人而罰之,善人賞而暴人罰
1,天下必治矣。然計天下之所以治者何也?唯而以尚同一義為政故也。
Identification with the Superior...:
Now that the feudal state is in order, is that all there is to the way of governing the empire? By no means. The empire is composed of many states. They all like their own state and dislike other states. And there is strife among the strong and struggle among the weak. Therefore the feudal lord should again organize the purposes in the state and identify them with those of the emperor. The emperor also should give laws and should proclaim to the empire: "Whoever discovers a benefactor of the empire shall report it; whoever discovers a malefactor of the empire shall report it. Whoever reports a benefactor of the empire upon seeing one is equivalent to benefiting the state himself. Knowing him the superior will reward him, hearing of him the people will praise him. Whoever fails to report a malefactor upon seeing one is equivalent to doing evil to the empire himself. Knowing him the superior will punish him, hearing of him the people will condemn him." Thereupon all the people in the empire will wish to obtain reward and honour and avoid denunciation and punishment from their emperor. Seeing the good and the evil they will report. And the emperor can reward the good and punish the evil. With the good rewarded and the evil punished, the empire will surely have order. Now why is it that the empire becomes orderly? Just because the administration is based on the principle of Identification with the Superior.

1. 之 : 刪除。

7 尚同下:
天下既已治,天子又總天下之義,以尚同於天。故當尚同之為說也,尚用之天子,可以治天下矣;中用之諸侯,可而治其國矣;小用之家君,可用而治其家矣。是故大用之,治天下不窕,小用之,治一國一家而不橫者,若道之謂也。」
Identification with the Superior...:
Now that the empire becomes orderly, the emperor will further organize the purposes in the empire and identify them with the Will of Heaven. Therefore Identification with the Superior as a principle can govern the empire when used by the emperor, it can govern the state when used by the feudal lord, and it can govern the clan when used by the clan patriarch. To be found not wanting when used on a large scale to govern the empire, and not useless when employed on a small scale to govern a clan - this is said of such a principle.

8 尚同下:
故曰治天下之國若治一家,使天下之民若使一夫。意獨子墨子有此,而先王無此其有邪?則亦然也。聖王皆以尚同為政,故天下治。何以知其然也?於先王之書也大誓之言然,曰:「小人見姦巧乃聞,不言也,發罪鈞。」此言見淫辟不以告者,其罪亦猶淫辟者也。
Identification with the Superior...:
Hence the proverb: "To govern the world-empire is the same as to rule a single family clan; to command all the people in the world is the same as to order a single individual." Does any one think that all this is just a fancy of Mozi, and that this teaching did not exist among the sage-kings of old? Really they were of the same opinion. All the sage-kings administered their government by the principle of Identification with the Superior, therefore the world became orderly. How do we know it is so? It is recorded in the "Grand Oath" among the books of the ancient kings: "If an unscrupulous man discovers a case of intrigue and deception and fails to make it known, he shall be punished equally." This is to say that whoever discovers any crime and does not report it will be taken as committing a crime of the same order.

9 尚同下:
故古之聖王治天下也,其所差論,以自左右羽翼者皆良,外為之人,助之視聽者眾。故與人謀事,先人得之;與人舉事,先人成之;光1譽令聞,先人發之。唯信身而從事,故利若此。古者有語焉,曰:「一目
2視也,不若二目之視也。一耳之聽也,不若二耳之聽也。一手之操也,不若二手
3彊也。」夫唯能信身而從事,故利若此。是故古之聖王之治天下也,千里之外有賢人焉,其鄉里之人皆未之均聞見也,聖王得而賞之。千里之內有暴人焉,其鄉里未之均
4見也,聖王得而罰之。故唯毋以聖王為聰耳明目與?豈能一視而通見千里之外哉!一聽而通聞千里之外哉!聖王不往而視也,不就而聽也。然而使天下之為寇亂盜賊者,周流天下無所重足者,何也?其以尚同為政善也。
Identification with the Superior...:
Therefore in governing the empire, the ancient sage-kings chose only the excellent for the outposts as well as for the offices near him. As there were many to help him see and bear, be succeeded before others in planning, and completed before others in executing, and his good name was spread before others. Just because he could trust his staff in the administration, the benefits were as we have stated. There is an ancient proverb saying: "The sight of one eye cannot compare with that of two, the hearing of one ear cannot compare with that of two, the grasp of one hand cannot compare with that of two." Now, just because he could trust his staff in the administration the sage-king received such benefits. Therefore during the reign of the ancient sage-king over the empire, if there was a virtuous man more than a thousand li away he could reward him before the people in the same district and village all got to know it. And if there was a wicked man about a thousand li away he could punish him before the people in the same district and village all got to know it. Though it may be supposed that the sage-king was keen in hearing and sight, how could he see all that is beyond a thousand li at one look, how could he hear all that is beyond a thousand li at one hearing? In fact the sage-king could see without going there and hear without being near. Yet what kept the thieves, robbers, bandits, and highwaymen moving all over the empire without being able to find refuge anywhere? There is the beauty of adopting the principle of Identification with the Superior in government.

1. 光 : 原作「先之」。自孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》改。
2. 之 : 舊脫。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 之 : 舊脫。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
4. 聞 : 舊脫。

10 尚同下:
是故子墨子曰:「凡使民尚同者,愛民不疾,民無可使,曰必疾愛而使之,致信而持之,富貴以道其前,明罰以率其後。為政若此,唯欲毋與我同,將不可得也。」
Identification with the Superior...:
Therefore Mozi said: Whoever orders his people to identify themselves with their superior must love them dearly. For the people will not obey orders except when they are ordered with love and held in confidence. Lead them with wealth and honour ahead, and push them with just punishments from behind. When government is carried on like this, even though I wanted to have some one not to identify himself with me, it would be impossible.

11 尚同下:
是以子墨子曰:「今天下王公大人士君子,中情將欲為仁義,求為
1士,上欲中聖
2之道,下欲中國家百姓之利,故當尚同之說,而不
可不
3察尚同為政之本,而治要也。」
Identification with the Superior...:
Therefore Mozi said: If the kings, dukes, and important personages of the world now sincerely want to practise magnanimity and righteousness and be superior men, if they want to attain the way of the sage-kings on the one hand and contribute toward the benefit of the people on the other, they cannot leave the principle of Identification with the Superior unexamined and un-understood. Identification with the Superior is, indeed, the foundation of government and essence of orderliness.

1. 上 : 舊脫。
2. 王 : 舊脫。
3. 可不 : 舊脫。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

URN: ctp:mozi/book-3