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《经说上 - Exposition of Canon I》

English translation: A.C. Graham [?] Library Resources
Related resources
1 经说上:
故:小故,有之不必然,无之必不然。体也,若有端。大故,有之必
然,
1
之必不
2然,若见之成见也。Category: [逻辑]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Minor reason': having this, it will not necessarily be so; lacking this, necessarily it will not be so. It is a part, like having a starting point. 'Major reason': having this, it will necessarily [be so]; lacking [this, necessarily it will not] be so. Like the appearing bringing about the seeing.

1. 然, : Inserted. 孙诒让《墨子闲诂》
2. 之必不 : Inserted. 孙诒让《墨子闲诂》

2 经说上:
体:若二之一,尺之端也。Category: [几何学]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
For example, one of two, or the starting-point of a measured length.

3 经说上:
知:材,知也者。所以知也而必知。若明。Category: [知识论]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The 'intelligence': it being the means by which one knows, one necessarily does know. Like the eyesight.

4 经说上:
虑:虑也者,以其知有求也,而不必得之。若睨。Category: [知识论]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Thinking': by means of one's intelligence one seeks something, but does not necessarily find it. Like peering.

5 经说上:
知:知也者,以其知过物而能貌之。若见。Category: [知识论]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Knowing': by means of one's intelligence, having passed the thing one is able to describe it. Like seeing.

6 经说上:
𢜔1:𢜔2也者,以其知论物而其知之也著。若明。Category: [知识论]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Understanding': by means of one's intelligence, in discourse about the thing one's knowledge of it is apparent. Like clearness of sight.

1. 𢜔 : Originally read: "恕". Corrected by 孙诒让《墨子闲诂》
2. 𢜔 : Originally read: "恕". Corrected by 孙诒让《墨子闲诂》

7 经说上:
仁:爱己者,非为用己也。不若爱马。
著若明。
1Category: [伦理]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Love of oneself is not for the sake of making oneself useful. Not like loving a horse.

1. 著若明。 : Deleted. 衍文。 孙诒让《墨子闲诂》

8 经说上:
义:志以天下为芬,而能能利之,不必用。Category: [伦理]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
In intent, he takes the whole world as his field; in ability, he is able to benefit it. He is not necessarily employed.

9 经说上:
礼:贵者公,贱者名,而俱有敬僈。焉等,异论也。Category: [伦理]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The noble are adressed as 'Sir', the base by their given names, but in both cases one may be either respectful or rude, because modes of behaviour are different for different ranks.

10 经说上:
行:所为不差1名,行也;所为差2名,巧也。若为盗。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
What one does, neutrally named, is one's conduct. Giving a good name to what one does is trickery. For example, to committing robbery.

1. 差 : Originally read: "善".
2. 差 : Originally read: "善".

11 经说上:
实:其志气之见也,使人知1己。不若金声玉服。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The manifestation of his intent and his zeal enables others to know him. Not like the tinkle of metal or jade pendants.

1. 知 : Originally read: "如".

12 经说上:
忠:不利,弱子亥足将入止容。Category: [伦理]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
...

13 经说上:
孝:以亲为芬,而能能利亲。不必得。Category: [伦理]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
In intent, he takes his parents as his field; in ability, he is able to benefit them. He does not necessarily succeed.

14 经说上:
信:不以其言之当也,使人视城得金。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is not by his words fitting the fact that he makes others pay attention to them; it is because they are sure of his conduct. The frankness of his words enables him to verify them. ... the city wall and get the money.

15 经说上:
佴:与人遇,人衆,𢝺。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
When he confronts another, the multitude follows his lead.

16 经说上:
𧨜:为是为是之台彼也,弗为也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
He does the right things; but when doing the right thing interferes with some other thing, he will not do it.

17 经说上:
廉:己惟为之,知其也𦖷也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Although he performs it himself, he is under the authority of someone who knows the rest about it (?).

18 经说上:
所令非身弗行。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is not that he is not himself the agent.

19 经说上:
任:为身之所恶,以成人之所急。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
He performs what in his own interests he dislikes in order to bring about what others need.

20 经说上:
勇:以其敢于是也,命之;不以其不敢于彼也,害之。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
One names a man 'brave' because of what he does dare; one does not raise as an objection something else that he does not dare.

21 经说上:
力:重之谓,下与重,奋1也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is of weight that it is said. Lifting a weight from below is exertion.

1. 奋 : Originally read: "旧".

22 经说上:
生:楹之生。商不可必也。

23 经说上:
卧:

24 经说上:
梦:

25 经说上:
平:惔然。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
...tranquil.

26 经说上:
利:得是而喜,则是利也。其害也,非是也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If you are pleased to get this one, this is the beneficial one, and the harmful one is not this one.

27 经说上:
害:得是而恶,则是害也。其利也,非是也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If you dislike getting this one, this is the harmful one, and the one which is beneficial is not this one.

28 经说上:
治:吾事治矣,人有治南北。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
One's own affairs having been put in order, others also putting in order North and South...

29 经说上:
誉之必其行也。其言之忻,使人督之。

30 经说上:
诽:必其行也,其言之忻。

31 经说上:
1:告以之2名,举彼实故也3
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Example, 'stone' explained by pointing out a stone? ... For 'like the stone' one necessarily uses what is like the name.

1. 举 : Originally read: "誉".
2. 之 : Originally read: "文".
3. 故也 : Originally read: "也故".

32 经说上:
言也者,诸口能之,出民者也。民若画俿也。言也谓,言犹名1致也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Example, 'tiger', explained by a picture? ... To inform about this name is to refer to the other object. Therefore 'saying' is an emitting of something's characteristics of which any speaker is capable. 'If the characteristics are like the picture, it is a tiger' is saying. To say that which it is called (as in the case of 'stone'), is to communicate it.

1. 名 : Originally read: "石".

33 经说上:
且:自前曰且,自后曰已。方然亦且。
若石者也。
1
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Before the event one says 'about to', after the event one says 'already'. The just now so too is about to be. (Like 'I'm afraid it will' and 'Let's for the moment...' (?))

1. 若石者也。 : Deleted. 衍文。

34 经说上:
君:以若名者也。

35 经说上:
功:不待时,若衣裘。
功不待时,若衣裘。
1
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If not at the due time, even if it is beneficial there is no achievement. (Like summer and winter clothes.)

1. 功不待时,若衣裘。 : Deleted. 衍文。

36 经说上:
赏:
上报下之功也。
1

1. 上报下之功也。 : Moved here from entry 37.

37 经说上:
罪:不在禁,惟害无罪,殆姑。
上报下之功也。
1
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If not covered by a prohibition, even if it is harmful there is no crime.

1. 上报下之功也。 : Moved to entry 36.

38 经说上:
罚:上报下之罪也。

39 经说上:
侗:二人而俱见是楹也,若事君。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
They are two men but both see that this is a pillar. Like serving a ruler. The pillar's engendering of the complement is not to be treated as necessary. (?)

40 经说上:
今久:古今且莫。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Present' and 'past' combine mornings and evenings.

41 经说上:
宇:东西家南北。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'East and West' covers North and South.

42 经说上:
穷:或不容尺,有穷;莫不容尺,无穷也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If somewhere there is no room for a measured length, it is limited; if everywhere there is room for a measured length, it is limitless.

43 经说上:
尽:俱1止动。Category: [逻辑]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Something is fixed of all of them.

1. 俱 : Originally read: "但".

44 经说上:
始:时或有久,或无久,始当无久。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Of times of a movement, there is one which has duration and one without duration. The commencement is plumb with the one without duration.

45 经说上:
化:若鼃为鹑。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
For example, a frog becoming a quail.

46 经说上:
损:偏也者兼之体1也。其体或去存,谓其存者损。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Some but not the rest': it is a unit in a total. Of its units, if one is removed and the other remains, we say that the one which remains is reduced.

1. 体 : Originally read: "礼".

47 经说上:

48 经说上:
1:俱柢2也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is the figure of a curve.

1. 环 : Originally read: "儇". Corrected by 孙诒让《墨子闲诂》
2. 俱柢 : Originally read: "昫民". Corrected by 孙诒让《墨子闲诂》

49 经说上:
库:区穴若斯貌常。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The circumference is like a cut, the figure is constant.

50 经说上:
动:偏祭从者,户枢免瑟。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Things which shift all over the border: the hinge of a door, the louse on a hare (?).

51 经说上:
止:无久之不止,当牛非马,若矢1过楹。有久之不止,当马非马,若人过梁。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
When the one without duration does not stay, the thing fits 'ox' and 'non-horse'. Like the arrow passing the starting-post. When the one which has duration does not stay, the thing fits 'horse' and 'non-horse'. Like a man having passed over a bridge.

1. 矢 : Originally read: "夫".

52 经说上:
必:谓台执者也。若弟兄一然者一不然者,必“不必”也,是非必也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is said of cases where complements are 'matured'. For example, younger-brother and elder-brother. Of a thing so in one case, a thing not so in one case, that it stays as such (?) is unnecessary, that it is this or is not is necessary.

53 经说上:

54 经说上:
同:楗1与狂之同长也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The same lengths of door-bar and door-frame are straight.

1. 楗 : Originally read: "捷".

55 经说上:
心中:自是往相若也。Category: [几何学]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Distances outward from this are alike.

56 经说上:
厚:惟无所大。Category: [几何学]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Only [the starting point (?)] has nothing than which it is bigger.

57 经说上:

58 经说上:

59 经说上:
圜:规写攴也。Category: [几何学]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The compasses draw it in the rough (?).

60 经说上:
方:矩见攴也。Category: [几何学]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The carpenter's square shows it in the rough (?).

61 经说上:
倍:二尺与尺但去一。Category: [几何学]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
When they are 'two', measured foot and measured foot both depart from one starting-point, which is being nowhere the same.

62 经说上:
端:是无间1也。Category: [几何学]

1. 间 : Originally read: "同".

63 经说上:
有间1:谓夹之者也。Category: [几何学]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It refers to the flanking ones.

1. 间 : Originally read: "闻".

64 经说上:
1:谓夹者也。尺前于区穴而后于端,不夹于端与区内。及及非齐之,及也。Category: [几何学]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It refers to what is flanked. Lengths measured from starting-point to circumference are not flanked by starting-point and circumference. The two extensions are extensions of which it is not the case that they come out level with each other.

1. 间 : Originally read: "闻".

65 经说上:
纑:
1虚也者,两木之间,谓其无木者也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Empty': of the interval between the two pieces of wood, it refers to where there is no wood.

1. 间 : Inserted.

66 经说上:
盈:无盈无厚。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
What does not fill anything is dimensionless. Along a measured length wherever you go you find the two.

67 经说上:
于石1无所往而不得,得二,坚。异处不相盈,相非,是相外也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Different positions do not fill each other. Not being each other is excluding each other..

1. 石 : Originally read: "尺".

68 经说上:
撄:尺与尺俱不尽,端与端俱尽。尺与或尽或不尽。坚白之撄相尽,体撄不相尽。端。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Of measured feet, neither is wholly covered by the other. Of starting-points, each is wholly covered by the other. Of the measured foot and the starting-point, one is wholly covered and the other is not. The hard and the white in coinciding wholly cover each other. Countable units in coinciding do not wholly cover each other.

69 经说上:
仳:两有端而后可。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is possible only if both proceed from a starting-point.

70 经说上:
次:无厚而后可。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is possible only because the starting-point is dimensionless.

71 经说上:
法:意、规、员三也,俱可以为法。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The idea, the compasses, a circle, all three may serve as standard.

72 经说上:
佴:然也者,民若法也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Being 'so' is the characteristics being like the standard.

73 经说上:

74 经说上:
彼:凡牛、枢非牛,两也。无以非也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
All oxen, and non-oxen marked off as a group, are the two sides. To lack what distinguishes an ox is to be a non-ox.

75 经说上:
辩:或谓之牛,或谓之非牛,是争彼也。是不俱当。不俱当,必或不当,不若当犬。Category: [逻辑]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
One calling it an 'ox' and the other 'non-ox' is 'contending over claims which are the converse of each other'. Such being the case they do not both fit the fact; and if they do not both fit, necessarily one of them does not fit. Not like fitting 'dog'.

76 经说上:
为:欲𩁥其指,智不知其害,是智之罪也。若智之慎文也无遗,于其害也,而犹欲𩁥之,则离之是犹食脯也。骚之利害,未知也,欲而骚,是不以所疑止所欲也。廧外之利害,未可知也,趋之而得力,则弗趋也,是以所疑止所欲也。观“为,穷知而𠐴于欲”之理,𩁥脯而非𢜔也,𩁥指而非愚也,所为与不所与为相疑也,非谋也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If you prefer to cut off your finger, and the understanding does not recognise the harm in it, this is the understanding being at fault. If the consideration paid to it by the understanding overlooks none of the harm in it, but you still prefer to cut it off, then that things have turned out unhappily is as with eating dried meat. Whether putrid meat will benefit or harm is unknowable in advance; if you prefer to eat the meat, and it is putrid, then eating it is refusing to take the doubt as grounds for fixing which you prefer. Whether there was benefit or harm 'beyond the wall' was not knowable in advance; if by heading for it you could get money, then refusing to head for it would be taking the doubt as grounds for fixing which you prefer.
In the light of the principle that 'To be 'for' is to give the most weight in relation to the desires, having taken account of all that one knows', when you cut up dried meat it is not wisdom, when you cut off a finger it is not foolishness. When what you are for and what you are against put each other in doubt, you are failing to plan things out.

77 经说上:
已:为衣,成也;治病,亡也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Of making a coat: 'to bring about'. Of curing an illness: 'to get rid of'.

78 经说上:
使:令,谓“谓”也,不必成。湿,“故”也,必待所为之成也。Category: [逻辑]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
To give orders is 'to tell'. The thing does not necessarily come about. Dampness is a cause. It is necessarily required that what it does comes about.

79 经说上:
名:物,达也。有实必待之名1也。命之马,类也。若实也者,必以是名也。命之臧,私也。是名也止于是实也。声出口,俱有名,若姓字2洒。Category: [逻辑]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Thing' is 'unrestricted' - any object necessarily requires this name. Naming something 'horse' is 'classifying' - for 'like the object' we necessarily use this name. Naming someone 'Jack' is 'private' - this name stays confined in this object. The sounds which issue from the mouth all have the name. For example, surname and style-name.

1. 之名 : Originally read: "文多".
2. 字 : Originally read: "宇". Corrected by 孙诒让《墨子闲诂》

80 经说上:
谓:狗、犬,命也。狗犬,举也。叱狗,加也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Of naming by linking 'whelp' and 'dog: 'transfer'. Of 'whelp', of 'dog': 'refer'. Of hooting at a dog: 'apply'.

81 经说上:
知:传受之,闻也;方不㢓,说也;身观焉,亲也。所以谓,名也;所谓,实也。名实耦,合也。志行,为也。Category: [知识论]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Having received it at second hand is knowing by 'hearsay'. Knowing that something square will not rotate is by 'explanation'. Having been a witness oneself is knowing 'by personal experience'. What something is called by is its 'name'. What is so called is the 'object'. The mating of 'name' and 'object' is 'relating'. To intend and to perform are to 'act'.

82 经说上:
闻:或告之,传也;身观焉,亲也。Category: [知识论]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Being told by someone is hearing 'at second hand'. Being a witness oneself is hearing 'in person'.

83 经说上:
见:时者,体也;二者,尽也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
One member of a pair (?) is an individual. Two of them are 'all'.

84 经说上:
1:兵立反中、志工,正也;臧之为,宜也:非彼必不有,必也。圣者用而勿必,必也者可勿疑。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The relations of sharing a level with (?), coinciding as the converse (?), aim and achievement, are 'exact'. The relation to wahat Jack is deemed to be is 'to the one which is appropriate'. If without something else something is necessarily absent, the relation is 'necessary'. The judges of sage, employ but do not treat as necessary. The 'necessary' accept and do not doubt. The ones which are the converse of each other, apply on both sides, not on one without the other.

1. 合 : Originally read: "古".

85 经说上:
仗者,两而勿偏。

86 经说上:
为:早台,存也。病,亡也。买鬻,易也。霄尽,荡也。顺长,治也。鼃买,化也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Of coinciding with a complement (?): 'keep as it is'. Of illness: 'get rid of'. Of buying and selling: 'exchange'. Of sleet or ashes: 'dissolve'. Of instructing and leading: 'govern'. Of frog and quail: 'transform'.

87 经说上:
同:二名一实,重同也。不外于兼,体同也。俱处于室,合同也。有以同,类同也。Category: [逻辑]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
There being two names but one object is the sameness of 'identity'. Not being outside the total is sameness 'as units'. Both occupying the room is the sameness of being 'together'. Being the same in some respect is sameness in being 'of a kind'.

88 经说上:
异:二必异,二也。不连属,不体也。不同所,不合也。不有同,不类也。Category: [逻辑]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The objects if the names are two necessarily being different is being 'two'. Not connected or attached is 'not units'. Not in the same place is 'not together'. Not the same in a certain respect is 'not of a kind'.

89 经说上:
同异交得:于福家良恕,有无也。比度,多少也。免轫还园,去就也。鸟折用桐,坚柔也。剑尤甲1,死生也。处室子
2母,长少也。两绝胜,白黑也。中央旁也。论、行
行行
3、学、实,是非也。鸡4宿,成未也。兄弟,俱适也。身处志往,存亡也。霍,为姓故也。贾宜,贵贱也。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
In interplay the following become relative: In the case of a rich family, of native intelligence, 'having and lacking'. In the case of putting side by side and measuring, 'more and less'. In the case of a louse on a hare moving this way and that (?), 'departing and approaching'. In the case of retreating the better to attack, 'hard and soft'. In the case of a sword just striking, 'dead and alive'. In the case of son, son and mother within a family, 'elder and younger'. In the case of discourse, conduct, learning an object, 'being this or not being it (right or wrong)'. In the case of raising objections to a proposal or putting off acting on it, 'proved or not yet proved'. In the case of elder-brother and younger-brother, 'both being complements'. In the case of the body being here and the thoughts on something elsewhere, 'present or absent'. In the case of what 'Crane' constitutes, 'the surname or the thing as it is in itself'. In the case of a price being right, 'dear or cheap'.

1. 甲 : Originally read: "早".
2. 子 : Deleted. 衍文。
3. 行行 : Deleted.
4. 鸡 : Originally read: "难".

90 经说上:

91 经说上:

92 经说上:

93 经说上:

94 经说上:
诺:超、诚1、负2、正3也。相从、相去、先知、是、可,五色。长短、前后、轻重援
正五诺,皆人于知有说;过五诺,若员,无直无说;用五诺,若自然矣。
4
Exposition of Canon I:...:
When we 'jump the wall', the circular stays fixed. By the things which follow from each other or exclude each other, we may know 'a priori' what it is. For the five colours, long and short, before and after, light and heavy, adduce the one to which you are committed. The matching and the assent enter the consciousness together. When something is explained, and you assent to more than that they match, for example to a circle being nowhere straight, or nothing is explained and you assent on the basis of the matching, it is as though it were so of itself.

1. 诚 : Originally read: "城".
2. 负 : Originally read: "员".
3. 正 : Originally read: "止".
4. 正五诺,皆人于知有说;过五诺,若员,无直无说;用五诺,若自然矣。 : Moved here from entry 100.

95 经说上:
执服难。成言务成之,九则求执之。
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If he raises objections to an established statement, and makes it his business to establish this commitment, seek the standard for the commitment.

96 经说上:

97 经说上:
法:法取同,观巧传。Category: [逻辑]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Choose what is the same, and examine the subtle turn.

98 经说上:
法:取此择彼,问故观宜。以人之有黑者有不黑者也,止黑人,与以有爱于人有不爱于人,心爱人,是孰宜?Category: [逻辑]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Choose this and pick out that, ask about reasons and examine appropriateness. Using what is black and what is not black in a man to fix 'black man', and using love of some men and failure to love other men to fix 'love of man' - of these which is appropriate?

99 经说上:
1:彼举然者,以为此其然也,则举不然者而问之。Category: [逻辑]
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If the other man, referring to a respect in which it is not so, deems it so in the instance here, refer to respects in which it is not so and inquire about them.

1. 止 : Originally read: "心".

100 经说上:
若圣人有非而不非。
正五诺,皆人于知有说;过五诺,若员,无直无说;用五诺,若自然矣。
1
Exposition of Canon I:...:
For example, the sage has respects in which he is not, yet he is.

1. 正五诺,皆人于知有说;过五诺,若员,无直无说;用五诺,若自然矣。 : Moved to entry 94.

URN: ctp:mozi/exposition-of-canon-i