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《耕柱》

英文翻譯:W. P. Mei[?]
提到《耕柱》的書籍 電子圖書館
1 耕柱:
子墨子怒耕柱子,耕柱子曰:「我毋俞於人乎?」子墨子曰:「我將上大行,駕驥與羊,子將誰敺?」耕柱子曰:「將敺驥也。」子墨子曰:「何故敺驥也?」耕柱子曰:「驥足以責。」子
墨子
1曰:「我亦以子為足以責。」
Geng Zhu:
Mozi was angry with Geng Zhuzi. Geng Zhuzi said: Am I not at all better than others?" Mozi said: Suppose I am starting out for Tai Hang. And a horse and an ox are to pull my cart. Which of them would you urge? Geng Zhuzi said: "I would urge the horse." Mozi asked: Why urge the horse? Geng Zhuzi said: "Because the horse is capable (of better speed)." Mozi said: I also think you are capable (of better things).

1. 墨子 : 舊脫。 《墨子閒詁》據《太平御覽》增。

2 耕柱:
巫馬子謂子墨子曰:「鬼神孰與聖人明智?」子墨子曰:「鬼神之明智於聖人,猶聰耳明目之與聾瞽也。昔者夏后開使蜚廉折金於山川,而陶鑄之於昆吾;是使翁難
雉乙
1卜於白若之龜,曰:『鼎成三足而方』,不炊而自烹,不舉而自臧,不遷而自行,以祭於昆吾之虛2,上鄉」!
34言兆之由曰:『饗矣!逢逢白雲,一南一北,一西一東,九鼎既成,遷於三國。』夏后氏失之,殷人受之;殷人失之,周人受之。夏后、殷、周之相受也。數百歲矣。使聖人聚其良臣與其桀相而謀,豈能智數百歲之後哉!而鬼神智之。是故曰,鬼神之明智於聖人也,猶聰耳明目之與聾瞽也。」
Geng Zhu:
Wu Mazi questioned Mozi "Which are wiser, the ghosts and spirits or the sages?" Mozi said: The ghosts and spirits are wiser than the sages by as much as the sharp-eared and keen-sighted surpass the deaf and blind. In ancient times, Emperor Qi of Xia commissioned Fei Lian to dig minerals in mountains and rivers and cast tings at Kun Wu. He ordered Yi to kill the pheasant to invoke the tortoise of Boruo, saying: "Let the dings, when completed, be four-legged. Let them be able to cook automatically, without fire, to hide themselves without being lifted, and to move themselves without being carried. So that they may be used for the sacrifice at Kun Wu. May our offering be accepted!" Then the oracle was interpreted as saying: "I have accepted the offering. Profuse are the white clouds: one to the south, one to the north, one to the west, one to the east. When the nine dings have been completed, they shall be given over to three empires. When the emperor of Xia loses them the man of Yin will possess them; when the man of Yin loses them the man of Zhou will possess them." Now the transfer from the emperor of Xia to Yin and Zhou took many centuries. Even if the sage planned in counsel with his excellent ministers and superior assistants, could he foresee what would happen after many centuries? Yet the ghosts and spirits can. Therefore we say, the ghosts and spirits are wiser than the sages by as much as the sharp-eared and keen-sighted are than the deaf and blind.

1. 雉乙 : 舊脫。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 虛 : 原作「墟」。自孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》改。
3. 乙 : 舊脫。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
4. 又 : 原作「人」。自孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》改。

3 耕柱:
治徒娛、縣子碩問於子墨子曰:「為義孰為大務?」子墨子曰:「譬若築牆然,能築者築,能實壤者實壤,能欣者欣,然後牆成也。為義猶是也。能談辯者談辯,能說書者說書,能從事者從事,然後義事成也。」
Geng Zhu:
Zhi Tu Yu and Xian Zi Shuo asked Mozi: "What is the greatest righteousness in conduct?" Mozi said: It is like the building of a wall. Let those who can lay the bricks lay the bricks, let those who can fill in the mortar fill in the mortar, and let those who can carry up the material carry up the material. Then the wall can be completed. To do righteousness is just like this. Let those who can argue argue, let those who can expound the doctrines expound the doctrines, and let those who can administer, administer. Then righteousness is achieved.

4 耕柱:
巫馬子謂子墨子曰:「子兼愛天下,未云利也;我不愛天下,未云賊也。功皆未至,子何獨自是而非我哉?」子墨子曰:「今有燎者於此,一人奉水將灌之,一人摻火將益之,功皆未至,子何貴於二人?」巫馬子曰:「我是彼奉水者之意,而非夫摻火者之意。」子
墨子
1曰:「吾亦是吾意,而非子之意也。」
Geng Zhu:
Wu Mazi said to Mozi: "Though you love universally the world cannot be said to be benefited; though I do not love (universally) the world cannot be said to be injured. Since neither of us has accomplished anything, what makes you then praise yourself and blame me?" Mozi answered: Suppose a conflagration is on. One person is fetching water to extinguish it, and another is holding some fuel to reinforce it. Neither of them has yet accomplished anything, but which one do you value? Wu Mazi answered that he approved of the intention of the person who fetches water and disapproved of the intention of the person who holds fuel. Mozi said: (In the same manner) do I approve of my intention and disapprove of yours.

1. 墨子 : 舊脫。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

5 耕柱:
子墨子游荊耕柱子於楚,二三子過之,食之三升,客之不厚。二三子復於子墨子曰:「耕柱子處楚無益矣。二三子過之,食之三升,客之不厚。」子墨子曰:「未可智也。」毋幾何而遺十金於子墨子,曰:「後生不敢死,有十金於此,願夫子之用也。」子墨子曰:「果未可智也。」
Geng Zhu:
Mozi had recommended Geng Zhuzi to Chu. Some (other) pupils visited him. They were given only three sheng (of grain) each meal and were not generously entertained. The pupils returned and reported to Mozi, saying: "Geng Zhuzi is not profited by serving Chu. When we visited him, we were given only three sheng each meal and were not generously entertained." Mozi said: You cannot tell. Shortly after, (Geng Zhuzi) sent Mozi ten jin of silver, saying: "Your junior disciple who dare not die sends herewith ten jin, which I hope you will use." Mozi said: So, indeed, we cannot tell.

6 耕柱:
巫馬子謂子墨子
曰:「子
1之為義也,人不見而助2,鬼不見而富,而子為之,有狂疾!」子墨子曰:「今使子有二臣於此,其一人者見子從事,不見子則不從事;其一人者見子亦從事,不見子亦從事,子誰貴於此二人?」巫馬子曰:「我貴其見我亦從事,不見我亦從事者。」子墨子曰:「然則,是子亦貴有狂疾也。」
Geng Zhu:
Wu Mazi said to Mozi: "For all the righteousness that you do, men do not help you and ghosts do not bless you. Yet you keep on doing it. You must be demented." Mozi said: Suppose you have here two employees. One of them works when he sees you but will not work when he does not see you. The other one works whether he sees you or not. Which of the two would you value? Wu Mazi said that he would value him that worked whether he saw him or not. Mozi then said: Then you are valuing him who is demented.

1. 曰:「子 : 舊脫。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 助 : 原作「耶」。自孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》改。

7 耕柱:
子夏子徒問於子墨子曰:「君子有鬥乎?」子墨子曰:「君子無鬥。」子夏之徒曰:「狗豨猶有鬥,惡有士而無鬥矣?」子墨子曰:「傷矣哉!言則稱於湯文,行則譬於狗豨,傷矣哉!」
Geng Zhu:
A pupil of Zi Xia asked Mozi whether there could be any struggle among the superior men. Mozi said: The superior men do not struggle. The pupil of Zi Xia said: "There is struggle even among the dogs and hogs, how can there be no struggle among men?" Mozi said: What a shame! Tang and Wu are praised with words; but dogs and hogs are brought into comparison in conduct. What a shame!

8 耕柱:
巫馬子謂子墨子曰:「舍今之人而譽先王,是譽槁骨也。譬若匠人然,智槁木也,而不智生木。」子墨子曰:「天下之所以生者,以先王之道教也。今譽先王,是譽天下之所以生也。可譽而不譽,
1仁也。」子墨子曰:「和氏之璧,隋侯之珠,三棘六異,此諸侯之所謂良寶也。可以富國家,眾人民,治刑政,安社稷乎?曰不可。所謂貴良寶者,為其可以利也。而和氏之璧、隋侯之珠、三棘六異不可以利人,是非天下之良寶也。今用義為政於國家,人民必眾,刑政必治,社稷必安。所為貴良寶者,可以利民也,而義可以利人,故曰,義天下之良寶也。」
Geng Zhu:
Wu Mazi criticized Mozi, saying. "To leave contemporaries alone and to praise the early kings is to praise rotten bones. It is like the carpenter who knows only the decaying lumber but not the living tree." Mozi: Now the world lives because of the instructions of the early kings. And to praise the early kings is to praise the source of life to the world. Not to praise what should be praised is not magnanimous. Mozi said: The jade of He, the pearl of Duke Sui, and the nine dings - these are what the feudal lords value as excellent treasures. Can they enrich the country, multiply the people, put the government in order, and place the state in safety? Of course they cannot. Excellent treasures are to be valued for their efficacy. Now since the jade of He, the pearl of Duke Sui, and the nine dings cannot benefit men, then they are not the excellent treasures in the world. On the other hand, if righteousness is employed in the government of the state the population will be increased, the government will be in order, and the state will be secure. The excellent treasures are to be valued for their efficacy. Now righteousness can benefit men. So then righteousness is the excellent treasure of the world.

1. 非 : 舊脫。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

9 耕柱:
葉公子高問政於仲尼曰:「善為政者若之何?」仲尼對曰:「善為政者,遠者近之,而舊者新之。」子墨子聞之曰:「葉公子高未得其問也,仲尼亦未得其所以對也。葉公子高豈不知善為政者之遠者近也,而舊者新是哉?問所以為之若之何也。不以人之所不智告人,以所智告之,故葉公子高未得其問也,仲尼亦未得其所以對也。」
Geng Zhu:
Lord Zi Gao of She asked Zhongni about government, saying: "What is a good governor like?" Zhongni answered him that the good governor will attract those who are distant and renew old friendships. Mozi heard of it and commented: Lord Zi Gao of She did not put the question right, neither did Zhongni give the right answer. For, did not Lord Zi Gao of She understand, to be a good governor is to attract the distant and to renew the old friendships? The question was really how to do this. The answer told only what the inquirer understands but did not tell what he does not understand. Therefore (I say), Lord Zi Gao of She did not put the question right, neither did Zhongni give the right answer.

10 耕柱:
子墨子謂魯陽文君曰:「大國之攻小國,譬猶童子之為馬也。童子之為馬,足用而勞。今大國之攻小國也,攻者農夫不得耕,婦人不得織,以守為事;攻人者,亦農夫不得耕,婦人不得織,以攻為事。故大國之攻小國也,譬猶童子之為馬也。」
Geng Zhu:
Mozi said to Prince Wen of Lu Yang: The large states attacking the small states is like the boys playing horse. When the boys play horse, they merely tire out their own feet. Now, when a large state attacks a small state the farmers of the attacked states cannot cultivate the fields and the women cannot weave. They have to go to the defence. And the farmers of the invading states cannot cultivate the fields and the women cannot weave either. They have to take part in the attack. Therefore (I say) the large states attacking the small states is like the boys playing horse.

11 耕柱:
子墨子曰:「言足以復行者,常之;
1足以舉行者,勿常。不足以舉行而常之,是蕩口也。」
Geng Zhu:
Mozi said: Doctrines that can be translated into conduct may be taught frequently. Doctrines that cannot be translated into conduct may not be taught frequently. To talk frequently about what cannot be carried out is merely to wear out one's mouth.

1. 不 : 舊脫。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

12 耕柱:
子墨子使管黔敖游高石子於衛,衛君致祿甚厚,設之於卿。高石子三朝必盡言,而言無行者。去而之齊,見子墨子曰:「衛君以夫子之故,致祿甚厚,設我於卿。石三朝必盡言,而言無行,是以去之也。衛君無乃以石為狂乎?」子墨子曰:「去之苟道,受狂何傷!古者周公旦非關叔,辭三公東處於商蓋,人皆謂之狂。後世稱其德,揚其名,至今不息。且翟聞之為義非避毀就譽,去之苟道,受狂何傷!」高石子曰:「石去之,焉敢不道也。昔者夫子有言曰:『天下無道,仁士不處厚焉。』今衛君無道,而貪其祿爵,則是我為苟啗人食也。」子墨子說,而召子禽子曰:「姑聽此乎!夫倍義而鄉祿者,我常聞之矣。倍祿而鄉義者,於高石子焉見之也。」
Geng Zhu:
Mozi sent Guan Qin Ao to recommend Gao Shizi to Wei. The lord of Wei gave him heavy emoluments and ranked him among the ministers. Gao Shizi came to court three times and gave all his counsels. But none of them was carried out. So he left for Qi where he saw Mozi and said: "On your account the lord of Wei gave me heavy emoluments and ranked me among the ministers. I went to court three times and gave all my counsels. But none of them was carried out. So I left. Wouldn't the lord of Wei think I was demented?" Mozi said: If you left because it is in accordance with the Dao, what does it matter even if suspected of being demented? Anciently, Duke Zhou was displeased with Uncle Guan and resigned from the Duke's duties and went east to Shang Yan to live. Everybody then said he was demented. But posterity praised his virtue and exalted his name unto this day. Moreover, I have heard, to practise righteousness is not to avoid blame and seek praise. If the resignation is in accordance with the Dao, what does it matter if one is suspected of being demented? Gao Shizi said: "How dare Shi leave if it were not in accordance with the Dao? Formerly, Master, you have said: When there is no Dao in the world, the superior men will not stay in positions of plenty. Now the lord of Wei does not observe the Dao. If I should covet his emoluments and position then I would be living on others as a parasite." Mozi was pleased and summoned Qinzi, telling him: Now, listen, cases of disregard of righteousness for emoluments I have heard of. But disregard of emoluments for righteousness I have seen (only) in Gao Shizi.

13 耕柱:
子墨子曰:「世俗之君子,貧而謂之富,則怒,無義而謂之有義,則喜。豈不悖哉!」
Geng Zhu:
Mozi said: When a man calls a gentleman of the present rich while he is poor he becomes angry. Yet, when the man calls him just he will be pleased even though he is unjust. Isn't this perverse!

14 耕柱:
公孟子曰:「先人有則三而已矣。」子墨子曰:「孰先人而曰有則三而已矣?子未智人之先有。」
Geng Zhu:
Gong Mengzi said: "The ancient people had their rules, and they were but three in number." Mozi interrupted him, saying: Which ancient people are you talking about that you say have three rules? You don't understand that people first had....

15 耕柱:
後生有反子墨子而反者,「我豈有罪哉?吾反後」。子墨子曰:「是猶三軍北,失後之人求賞也。」
Geng Zhu:
Some pupils deserted Mozi and then returned. (They said:) "How are we to blame? We deserted late." Mozi said: This is like asking for reward for late desertion in a defeated army.

16 耕柱:
公孟子曰:「君子不作,術而已。」子墨子曰:「不然,人之其不君子者,古之善者不誅,今也善者不作。其次不君子者,古之善者不遂,己有善則作之,欲善之自己出也。今誅而不作,是無所異於不好遂而作者矣。吾以為古之善者則誅之,今之善者則作之,欲善之益多也。」
Geng Zhu:
Gong Mengzi said: "The superior man does not create but transmits." Mozi said: Not at all. The most unsuperior men do not transmit the good of old and do not create any good for the present. The less unsuperior men do not transmit the good of old, but will bring out the good which he possesses for the sake of praise. Now to transmit but not to create is not different from creating without transmitting. It seems to me what good there is of old one should transmit it; what good there is to be for the present, one should institute it, so that the good may increase all the more.

17 耕柱:
巫馬子謂子墨子曰:「我與子異,我不能兼愛。我愛鄒人於越人,愛魯人於鄒人,愛我鄉人於魯人,愛我家人於鄉人,愛我親於我家人,愛我身於吾親,以為近我也。擊我則疾,擊彼則不疾於我,我何故疾者之不拂,而不疾者之拂?故有我有殺彼以我,無殺我以利。」子墨子曰:「子之義將匿邪,意將以告人乎?」巫馬子曰:「我何故匿我義?吾將以告人。」子墨子曰:「然則,一人說子,一人欲殺子以利己;十人說子,十人欲殺子以利己;天下說子,天下欲殺子以利己。一人不說子,一人欲殺子,以子為施不祥言者也;十人不說子,十人欲殺子,以子為施不祥言者也;天下不說子,天下欲殺子,以子為施不祥言者也。說子亦欲殺子,不說子亦欲殺子,是所謂經者口也,殺常之身者也。」子墨子曰:「子之言惡利也?若無所利而不言,是蕩口也。」
Geng Zhu:
Wu Mazi told Mozi: "I differ from you. I cannot love universally - I love the people of Zou better than the people of Chu, the people of Lu better than the people of Zou, the people of my district better than the people of Lu, the members of my family better than the people of my district, my parents better than the other members of my family, and myself better than my parents. This, because of their nearness to me. When I am beaten I feel pain. When they are beaten the pain does not extend to me. Why should I resist what does not give me pain but not resist what gives me pain? Therefore I would rather have them killed to benefit me than to have me killed to benefit them." Mozi said: Is this view of yours to be kept secret or to be told to others? Wu Mazi replied: "Why should I keep my opinion to myself? Of course I shall tell it to others." Mozi said: Then if one person is pleased with you, there will be one person who will desire to kill you in order to benefit himself. If ten persons are pleased with you, there will be ten persons who will desire to kill you to benefit themselves. If (the people of) the whole world are pleased with you, the whole world will desire to kill you to benefit themselves. (On the other hand), if one person is not pleased with you there will be one person who will desire to kill you as the propagator of a wicked doctrine. If ten persons are not pleased with you there will be ten persons who will desire to kill you as the propagator of an evil doctrine. If (the people of) the whole world are not pleased with you the whole world will desire to kill you as the propagator of an evil doctrine. (So, then) those who are pleased with you desire to kill you and those who are not pleased with you also desire to kill you. This is to say, what passes out from your mouth is what kills your body. Mozi continued: Then, where, after all, does the benefit of your doctrine lie? To teach what is not profitable is merely to wear out one's mouth.

18 耕柱:
子墨子謂魯陽文君曰:「今有一人於此,羊牛犓豢,維人但割而和之,食之
不可
1勝食也。見人之作餅,則還然竊之,曰:『舍余食。』不知日月安不足乎,其有竊疾乎?」魯陽文君曰:「有竊疾也。」子墨子曰:「楚四竟之田,曠蕪而不可勝辟,謼虛2數千,不可勝,見宋、鄭之閒邑,則還然竊之,此與彼異乎?」魯陽文君曰:「是猶彼也,實有竊疾也。」
Geng Zhu:
Mozi said to Prince Wen of Lu Yang: Here is a man who has such an abundance of sheep, oxen, and (other) grass-fed and grain-fed animals that he cannot eat all that the cooks prepare for him. (Yet,) when he sees a man baking cakes, he looks surprised and steals them, saying: "Let me eat them." Now, is this due to an unsatisfied appetite or is he affected with kleptomania? Prince Wen of Lu Yang replied that he must be suffering from kleptomania. Mozi said: The fields of Chu all lie in waste and cannot be exhaustively cultivated. The unoccupied land amounts to thousands (of mu) and is more than sufficient for cultivation. Yet when it saw the towns of Song and Zheng, it looked surprised and stole them. Is there any difference between this and the other (case)? Prince Wen of Lu Yang replied: "This is the same as that. It must be suffering from kleptomania (too)."

1. 不可 : 舊脫。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 虛 : 原作「靈」。自孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》改。

19 耕柱:
子墨子曰:「季孫紹與孟伯常治魯國之政,不能相信,而祝於叢社,曰:『苟使我和。』是猶弇其目,而祝於叢社曰:『苟使我皆視』。豈不繆哉!」
Geng Zhu:
Mozi said: When Jisun Zhao and Meng Bo Chang were in authority in Lu they could not trust each other. So they took oath at the altar, saying: "May we be harmonious!" This is like closing one's eyes and praying at the altar, "May I be able to see everything!" Isn't this unreason?

20 耕柱:
子墨子謂駱滑氂曰:「吾聞子好勇。」駱滑氂曰:「然,我聞其鄉有勇士焉,吾必從而殺之。」子墨子曰:「天下莫不欲與其所好,度其所惡。今子聞其鄉有勇士焉,必從而殺之,是非好勇也,是惡勇也。」
Geng Zhu:
Mozi said to Lou Hua Li: I have heard you are brave. Lou Hua Li replied: "Yes. When I hear there is a brave man somewhere I always go and kill him." Mozi said: The whole world promotes that which it likes and destroys that which it hates. But when you hear of a brave man somewhere you must go and kill him. This is not admiration for bravery but hate for it.

URN: ctp:mozi/geng-zhu