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《小取 - Minor Illustrations》

[Warring States (475 BC - 221 BC)] English translation: Donald Sturgeon [?] Library Resources
Related resources
[Also known as: "Xiao-qu", "Lesser Pick"]

1 小取:
Minor Illustrations:
"Distinguishing" will be used to make clear the distinction between so and not-so; investigate the rules of order and chaos; make clear the locations of similarity and difference; examine the patterns of name and stuff; locate benefit and harm, and resolve doubts. Only then can one describe in approximation the way the myriad things are, and speak of seeking similarity of sayings. Names are used to raise stuff; phrases are used to express intention; explanations are used to bring out causes. Choose according to kind; offer according to kind. Having it in oneself one do not oppose it in others; lacking it in oneself one do not seek it of others.

2 小取:
Minor Illustrations:
"Some" is not all. "Suppose" is not so now. "Imitation" is to make a standard: what is imitated is that which is used to make the standard. Thus what matches the imitation is so; what does not match the imitation is not so. This is imitation. "Analogy" is raising another thing to make something clear. "Similarity" is similar sayings proceeding together. "Leading" is saying, "You take it as so - why can I alone not take it as so?" "Extending" is taking what he has not chosen but is similar to what he has chosen, and presenting it to him. "It is like this" is similarity. "How could I be like this" is difference.

1. 他 : Originally read: "也".

3 小取:
Minor Illustrations:
Things have that by which they are similar, but this does not make them the similar. Similarity of sentences is correct within a certain range. That it is so, has that by which is so. When things are the same in being so, that by which they are so is not necessarily the same. When something is chosen, there is that by which it is chosen. When what is chosen is the same, that by which it is chosen is not necessarily the same. Thus the sayings of Analogy, Similarity, Leading, and Extending, proceed and become different, turn and become unsafe, go far and become lost, flow and lose their foundation - this must be examined, and they cannot be constantly applied. Thus doctrine should rely upon many methods, various kinds, different causes, and cannot be looked upon from a single perspective. Things are sometimes thus and so; sometimes thus and not so; sometimes one requires all and one not all; sometimes one thus and one not thus.

1. 其然也 : Inserted.
2. 所 : Inserted.
3. 周 : Originally read: "害".
4. 周 : Originally read: "害".
5. 不是也。不可常用也。故言多方,殊类,异故,则不可偏观也, : Deleted. 衍文。

4 小取:
Minor Illustrations:
A white horse is a horse; riding a white horse is riding a horse.
A black horse is a horse; riding a black horse is riding a horse.
Huo is a man; caring for Huo is caring for a man.
Zang is a man; caring for Zang is caring for a man.
These are "thus and so".

5 小取:
Minor Illustrations:
Huo's parents are people; Huo serving his parents is not serving people.
His younger brother is a handsome person; caring for his younger brother is not caring for handsome people.
A cart is wooden; riding a cart is not riding wood.
A boat is wooden; entering a boat is not entering wood.
A thief is a man; many thieves is not many men.
There being no thieves is not there being no men.
How can it be made clear?
Hating there being many thieves is not hating there being many men.
Wishing there were no thieves is not wishing there were no men.
Everyone in the world takes these as so. If this is so, then though thieves are men, caring for thieves is not caring for men; not caring for thieves is not not-caring for men; killing thieves is not killing men – there is nothing difficult in it! This and those are of the same kind; the world have those and don't oppose themselves, [yet] we Mohists have this and they oppose us. There can be no other reason than that they are stopped up within and closed without; their heart-minds are all filled in!
These are the "thus and not so".

1. 亲 : Originally read: "视".
2. 入 : Originally read: "人".
3. 入 : Originally read: "人".
4. 盗无难 : Deleted. 衍文。
5. 他故 : Originally read: "故也".
6. 然 : Originally read: "杀".

6 小取:
Minor Illustrations:
Reading books is not books; liking reading books is liking books.
Fighting cocks is not cocks; liking fighting cocks is liking cocks.
Being about to fall into a well is not falling into a well; stopping someone about to fall into a well is stopping someone from falling into a well.
Being about to go out is not going out; stopping someone about to go out is stopping someone going out.
If this is so, then:
Being about to die young is not dying young; stopping someone about to die young is stopping someone from dying young.
Taking there being fate is not fate; opposing those who take that there is fate is opposing fate.
It is not difficult. This and that are the same, the world has that and do not oppose themselves. We Mohists have these and yet they blame and oppose us. There can be no other reason than that they are stopped up within and closed without; their heart-minds are all filled in!
These are the the "not thus and so".

1. 书也;好读书, : Inserted.
2. 类 : Inserted.
3. 不 : Inserted.

7 小取:
Minor Illustrations:
Caring for people requires caring for all people to count as caring for people; not caring for people does not require not caring for all people to count as not caring for people. Not caring for all people implies not caring for people.
Riding horses does not require riding all horses to count as riding horses;
Having ridden upon a horse implies riding horses.
By contrast, not riding horses requires not riding all [i.e. any] horses to count as not riding horses.
This is "one requires all and one not all".

1. 而后不乘马 : Deleted.

8 小取:
Minor Illustrations:
Living within a state is living in the state; having a house within the state is not having the state.
The fruit of a peach is a peach; the fruit of a ji (jujube) is not a ji.
Asking after a person's illness is asking after a person; disliking a person's illness is not disliking a person.
A person's ghost is not a person; one's elder brother's ghost is one's elder brother.
Sacrificing to a person's ghost is not sacrificing to a person; sacrificing to one's elder brother's ghost is sacrificing to one's elder brother.
This horse's eyes are blind means that this horse is blind; this horse's eyes are large does not mean that this horse is large.
This ox's hairs are brown means that this ox is brown; this ox's hairs are many does not mean that this ox is many.
One horse is a horse. Two horses are horses. Horses have four feet: one horse has four feet; two horses do not have four feet.
One horse is a horse. Some horses are white: two horses can be some white; one horse cannot be some white.
This is "one thus and one not thus".

1. 人 : Inserted.

URN: ctp:mozi/minor-illustrations