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中国哲学书电子化计划
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《小取》

[战国 (公元前475年 - 公元前221年)] 英文翻译:德龙(Donald Sturgeon)[?] 电子图书馆
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[又名:"Xiao-qu", "Lesser Pick"]

1 小取:
夫辩者,将以明是非之分,审治乱之纪,明同异之处,察名实之理,处利害,决嫌疑。焉摹略万物之然,论求群言之比。以名举实,以辞抒意,以说出故,以类取,以类予。有诸己不非诸人,无诸己不求诸人。
Minor Illustrations:
"Distinguishing" will be used to make clear the distinction between so and not-so; investigate the rules of order and chaos; make clear the locations of similarity and difference; examine the patterns of name and stuff; locate benefit and harm, and resolve doubts. Only then can one describe in approximation the way the myriad things are, and speak of seeking similarity of sayings. Names are used to raise stuff; phrases are used to express intention; explanations are used to bring out causes. Choose according to kind; offer according to kind. Having it in oneself one do not oppose it in others; lacking it in oneself one do not seek it of others.

2 小取:
或也者,不尽也。假者,今不然也。效者,为之法也,所效者所以为之法也。故中效,则是也;不中效,则非也。此效也。辟也者,举他1物而以明之也。侔也者,比辞而俱行也。援也者,曰“子然,我奚独不可以然也?”推也者,以其所不取之同于其所取者,予之也。是犹谓也者,同也。吾岂谓也者,异也。
Minor Illustrations:
"Some" is not all. "Suppose" is not so now. "Imitation" is to make a standard: what is imitated is that which is used to make the standard. Thus what matches the imitation is so; what does not match the imitation is not so. This is imitation. "Analogy" is raising another thing to make something clear. "Similarity" is similar sayings proceeding together. "Leading" is saying, "You take it as so - why can I alone not take it as so?" "Extending" is taking what he has not chosen but is similar to what he has chosen, and presenting it to him. "It is like this" is similarity. "How could I be like this" is difference.

1. 他 : 原作“也”。

3 小取:
夫物有以同而不率遂同。辞之侔也,有所至而正。其然也,有所以然也;
其然也
1同,其所以然不必同。其取之也,有
2以取之。其取之也同,其所以取之不必同。是故辟、侔、援、推之辞,行而异,转而危,远而失,流而离本,则不可不审也,不可常用也。故言多方,殊类,异故,则不可偏观也。夫物或乃是而然,或是而不然,或一周3而一不周4,或一是而一
不是也。不可常用也。故言多方,殊类,异故,则不可偏观也,
5非也。
Minor Illustrations:
Things have that by which they are similar, but this does not make them the similar. Similarity of sentences is correct within a certain range. That it is so, has that by which is so. When things are the same in being so, that by which they are so is not necessarily the same. When something is chosen, there is that by which it is chosen. When what is chosen is the same, that by which it is chosen is not necessarily the same. Thus the sayings of Analogy, Similarity, Leading, and Extending, proceed and become different, turn and become unsafe, go far and become lost, flow and lose their foundation - this must be examined, and they cannot be constantly applied. Thus doctrine should rely upon many methods, various kinds, different causes, and cannot be looked upon from a single perspective. Things are sometimes thus and so; sometimes thus and not so; sometimes one requires all and one not all; sometimes one thus and one not thus.

1. 其然也 : 旧脱。
2. 所 : 旧脱。
3. 周 : 原作“害”。
4. 周 : 原作“害”。
5. 不是也。不可常用也。故言多方,殊类,异故,则不可偏观也, : 删除。 衍文。

4 小取:
白马,马也;乘白马,乘马也。骊马,马也;乘骊马,乘马也。获,人也;爱获,爱人也。臧,人也;爱臧,爱人也。此乃是而然者也。
Minor Illustrations:
A white horse is a horse; riding a white horse is riding a horse.
A black horse is a horse; riding a black horse is riding a horse.
Huo is a man; caring for Huo is caring for a man.
Zang is a man; caring for Zang is caring for a man.
These are "thus and so".

5 小取:
获之亲1,人也;获事其亲,非事人也。其弟,美人也;爱弟,非爱美人也。车,木也;乘车,非乘木也。船,木也;入2船,非入3木也。盗人,人也,多盗,非多人也,无盗非无人也。奚以明之?恶多盗,非恶多人也;欲无盗,非欲无人也。世相与共是之。若若是,则虽盗人人也,爱盗非爱人也;不爱盗非不爱人也;杀盗人非杀人也,无难
盗无难
4矣。此与彼同类,世有彼而不自非也,墨者有此而非之,无他故5焉,所谓内胶外闭与心毋空乎?内胶而不解也,此乃是而不然6者也。
Minor Illustrations:
Huo's parents are people; Huo serving his parents is not serving people.
His younger brother is a handsome person; caring for his younger brother is not caring for handsome people.
A cart is wooden; riding a cart is not riding wood.
A boat is wooden; entering a boat is not entering wood.
A thief is a man; many thieves is not many men.
There being no thieves is not there being no men.
How can it be made clear?
Hating there being many thieves is not hating there being many men.
Wishing there were no thieves is not wishing there were no men.
Everyone in the world takes these as so. If this is so, then though thieves are men, caring for thieves is not caring for men; not caring for thieves is not not-caring for men; killing thieves is not killing men – there is nothing difficult in it! This and those are of the same kind; the world have those and don't oppose themselves, [yet] we Mohists have this and they oppose us. There can be no other reason than that they are stopped up within and closed without; their heart-minds are all filled in!
These are the "thus and not so".

1. 亲 : 原作“视”。
2. 入 : 原作“人”。
3. 入 : 原作“人”。
4. 盗无难 : 删除。 衍文。
5. 他故 : 原作“故也”。
6. 然 : 原作“杀”。

6 小取:
且夫读书,非
书也;好读书,
1好书也。且斗鸡,非鸡也;好斗鸡,好鸡也。且入井,非入井也;止且入井,止入井也。且出门,非出门也;止且出门,止出门也。若若是,且夭,非夭也;寿夭也。有命,非命也;非执有命,非命也,无难矣。此与彼同
2,世有彼而不自非也,墨者有此而罪非之,无也故焉,所谓内胶外闭与心毋空乎?内胶而不解也。此乃
3是而然者也。
Minor Illustrations:
Reading books is not books; liking reading books is liking books.
Fighting cocks is not cocks; liking fighting cocks is liking cocks.
Being about to fall into a well is not falling into a well; stopping someone about to fall into a well is stopping someone from falling into a well.
Being about to go out is not going out; stopping someone about to go out is stopping someone going out.
If this is so, then:
Being about to die young is not dying young; stopping someone about to die young is stopping someone from dying young.
Taking there being fate is not fate; opposing those who take that there is fate is opposing fate.
It is not difficult. This and that are the same, the world has that and do not oppose themselves. We Mohists have these and yet they blame and oppose us. There can be no other reason than that they are stopped up within and closed without; their heart-minds are all filled in!
These are the the "not thus and so".

1. 书也;好读书, : 旧脱。
2. 类 : 旧脱。
3. 不 : 旧脱。

7 小取:
爱人,待周爱人而后为爱人。不爱人,不待周不爱人;不周爱,因为不爱人矣。乘马,不待周乘马然后为乘马也;有乘于马,因为乘马矣。逮至不乘马,待周不乘马而后不乘马
而后不乘马
1。此一周而一不周者也。
Minor Illustrations:
Caring for people requires caring for all people to count as caring for people; not caring for people does not require not caring for all people to count as not caring for people. Not caring for all people implies not caring for people.
Riding horses does not require riding all horses to count as riding horses;
Having ridden upon a horse implies riding horses.
By contrast, not riding horses requires not riding all [i.e. any] horses to count as not riding horses.
This is "one requires all and one not all".

1. 而后不乘马 : 删除。

8 小取:
居于国,则为居国;有一宅于国,而不为有国。桃之实,桃也;棘之实,非棘也。问人之病,问人也;恶人之病,非恶人也。人之鬼,非人也;兄之鬼,兄也。祭
1之鬼,非祭人也;祭兄之鬼,乃祭兄也。之马之目盼则为之马盼;之马之目大,而不谓之马大。之牛之毛黄,则谓之牛黄;之牛之毛众,而不谓之牛众。一马,马也;二马,马也。马四足者,一马而四足也,非两马而四足也。一马,马也。马或白者,二马而或白也,非一马而或白。此乃一是而一非者也。
Minor Illustrations:
Living within a state is living in the state; having a house within the state is not having the state.
The fruit of a peach is a peach; the fruit of a ji (jujube) is not a ji.
Asking after a person's illness is asking after a person; disliking a person's illness is not disliking a person.
A person's ghost is not a person; one's elder brother's ghost is one's elder brother.
Sacrificing to a person's ghost is not sacrificing to a person; sacrificing to one's elder brother's ghost is sacrificing to one's elder brother.
This horse's eyes are blind means that this horse is blind; this horse's eyes are large does not mean that this horse is large.
This ox's hairs are brown means that this ox is brown; this ox's hairs are many does not mean that this ox is many.
One horse is a horse. Two horses are horses. Horses have four feet: one horse has four feet; two horses do not have four feet.
One horse is a horse. Some horses are white: two horses can be some white; one horse cannot be some white.
This is "one thus and one not thus".

1. 人 : 旧脱。

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