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Scope: Pre-Qin and Han Request type: Paragraph
Condition 1: Contains property "Paradox" Matched:28.
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先秦两汉 - Pre-Qin and Han

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儒家 - Confucianism

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韩诗外传 - Han Shi Wai Zhuan

[Western Han] 180 BC-120 BC
Books referencing 《韩诗外传》 Library Resources

卷九

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16 卷九:
贤士不以耻食,不以辱得。老子曰:“名与身孰亲?身与货孰多?得与亡孰病?是故甚爱必大费,多藏必厚亡。知足不辱,知止不殆,可以长久。大成若缺,其用不敝;大盈若冲,其用不穷;大直若诎大辩若讷,大巧若拙,其用不屈。罪莫大于多欲,祸莫大于不知足。故知足之足,常足矣。”

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道家 - Daoism

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庄子 - Zhuangzi

[Warring States] 350 BC-250 BC English translation: James Legge [?]
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[Also known as: 《南华真经》]

内篇 - Inner Chapters

English translation: James Legge [?] Library Resources

齐物论 - The Adjustment of Controversies

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《齐物论》 Library Resources
10 齐物论:
夫道未始有封,言未始有常,为是而有畛也。请言其畛:有左,有右,有伦,有义,有分,有辩,有竞,有争,此之谓八德。六合之外,圣人存而不论;六合之内,圣人论而不议。春秋经世,先王之志,圣人议而不辩。故分也者,有不分也;辩也者,有不辩也。曰:何也?圣人怀之,众人辩之以相示也。故曰:辩也者,有不见也。夫大道不称,大辩不言,大仁不仁,大廉不嗛,大勇不忮。道昭而不道,言辩而不及,仁常而不成,廉清而不信,勇忮而不成。五者园而几向方矣。故知止其所不知,至矣。孰知不言之辩不道之道?若有能知,此之谓天府。注焉而不满,酌焉而不竭,而不知其所由来,此之谓葆光。故昔者尧问于舜曰:“我欲伐宗、脍、胥敖,南面而不释然。其故何也?”舜曰:“夫三子者,犹存乎蓬艾之间。若不释然,何哉?昔者十日并出,万物皆照,而况德之进乎日者乎!”
The Adjustment of Controversies:...:
The Dao at first met with no responsive recognition. Speech at first had no constant forms of expression. Because of this there came the demarcations (of different views). Let me describe those demarcations: they are the Left and the Right; the Relations and their Obligations; Classifications and their Distinctions; Emulations and Contentions. These are what are called 'the Eight Qualities.' Outside the limits of the world of men, the sage occupies his thoughts, but does not discuss about anything; inside those limits he occupies his thoughts, but does not pass any judgments. In the Chun Qiu, which embraces the history of the former kings, the sage indicates his judgments, but does not argue (in vindication of them). Thus it is that he separates his characters from one another without appearing to do so, and argues without the form of argument. How does he do so? The sage cherishes his views in his own breast, while men generally state theirs argumentatively, to show them to others. Hence we have the saying, 'Disputation is a proof of not seeing clearly.'
The Great Dao does not admit of being praised. The Great Argument does not require words. Great Benevolence is not (officiously) benevolent. Great Disinterestedness does not vaunt its humility. Great Courage is not seen in stubborn bravery. The Dao that is displayed is not the Dao. Words that are argumentative do not reach the point. Benevolence that is constantly exercised does not accomplish its object. Disinterestedness that vaunts its purity is not genuine. Courage that is most stubborn is ineffectual. These five seem to be round (and complete), but they tend to become square (and immovable). Therefore the knowledge that stops at what it does not know is the greatest. Who knows the argument that needs no words, and the Way that is not to be trodden? He who is able to know this has what is called 'The Heavenly Treasure-house.' He may pour into it without its being filled; he may pour from it without its being exhausted; and all the while he does not know whence (the supply) comes. This is what is called 'The Store of Light.' Therefore of old Yao asked Shun, saying, 'I wish to smite (the rulers of) Zong, Kuai, and Xu-Ao. Even when standing in my court, I cannot get them out of my mind. How is it so?' Shun replied, 'Those three rulers live (in their little states) as if they were among the mugwort and other brushwood - how is it that you cannot get them out of your mind? Formerly, ten suns came out together, and all things were illuminated by them; how much should (your) virtue exceed (all) suns!'

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德充符 - The Seal of Virtue Complete

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《德充符》 Library Resources
1 德充符:
鲁有兀者王骀,从之游者,与仲尼相若。常季问于仲尼曰:“王骀,兀者也,从之游者,与夫子中分鲁。立不教,坐不议,虚而往,实而归。固有不言之教,无形而心成者邪?是何人也?”仲尼曰:“夫子,圣人也。丘也,直后而未往耳。丘将以为师,而况不如丘者乎!奚假鲁国!丘将引天下而与从之。”常季曰:“彼兀者也,而王先生,其与庸亦远矣。若然者,其用心也,独若之何?”仲尼曰:“死生亦大矣,而不得与之变,虽天地覆坠,亦将不与之遗。审乎无假,而不与物迁,命物之化,而守其宗也。”常季曰:“何谓也?”仲尼曰:“自其异者视之,肝胆楚越也;自其同者视之,万物皆一也。夫若然者,且不知耳目之所宜,而游心于德之和,物视其所一,而不见其所丧,视丧其足,犹遗土也。”常季曰:“彼为己,以其知得其心,以其心得其常心,物何为最之哉?”仲尼曰:“人莫鉴于流水,而鉴于止水,唯止能止众止。受命于地,唯松柏独也在,冬夏青青;受命于天,唯舜独也正,幸能正生,以正众生。夫保始之徵,不惧之实。勇士一人,雄入于九军。将求名而能自要者,而犹若此,而况官天地,府万物,直寓六骸,象耳目,一知之所知,而心未尝死者乎!彼且择日而登假,人则从是也。彼且何肯以物为事乎!”
The Seal of Virtue...:
In Lu there was a Wang Tai who had lost both his feet; while his disciples who followed and went about with him were as numerous as those of Zhongni. Chang Ji asked Zhongni about him, saying, 'Though Wang Tai is a cripple, the disciples who follow him about divide Lu equally with you, Master. When he stands, he does not teach them; when he sits, he does not discourse to them. But they go to him empty, and come back full. Is there indeed such a thing as instruction without words? and while the body is imperfect, may the mind be complete? What sort of man is he?' Zhongni replied, 'This master is a sage. I have only been too late in going to him. I will make him my teacher; and how much more should those do so who are not equal to me! Why should only the state of Lu follow him? I will lead on all under heaven with me to do so.'
Chang Ji rejoined, 'He is a man who has lost his feet, and yet he is known as the venerable Wang - he must be very different from ordinary men. What is the peculiar way in which he employs his mind?' The reply was, 'Death and life are great considerations, but they could work no change in him. Though heaven and earth were to be overturned and fall, they would occasion him no loss. His judgment is fixed regarding that in which there is no element of falsehood; and, while other things change, he changes not. The transformations of things are to him the developments prescribed for them, and he keeps fast hold of the author of them.'
Chang Ji said, 'What do you mean?' 'When we look at things,' said Zhongni, 'as they differ, we see them to be different, (as for instance) the liver and the gall, or Chu and Yue; when we look at them, as they agree, we see them all to be a unity. So it is with this (Wang Tai). He takes no knowledge of the things for which his ears and eyes are the appropriate organs, but his mind delights itself in the harmony of (all excellent) qualities. He looks at the unity which belongs to things, and does not perceive where they have suffered loss. He looks on the loss of his feet as only the loss of so much earth.'
Chang Ji said, 'He is entirely occupied with his (proper) self. By his knowledge he has discovered (the nature of) his mind, and to that he holds as what is unchangeable; but how is it that men make so much of him?' The reply was, 'Men do not look into running water as a mirror, but into still water - it is only the still water that can arrest them all, and keep them (in the contemplation of their real selves). Of things which are what they are by the influence of the earth, it is only the pine and cypress which are the best instances - in winter as in summer brightly green. Of those which were what they were by the influence of Heaven, the most correct examples were Yao and Shun; fortunate in (thus) maintaining their own life correct, and so as to correct the lives of others. As a verification of the (power of) the original endowment, when it has been preserved, take the result of fearlessness - how the heroic spirit of a single brave soldier has been thrown into an army of nine hosts. If a man only seeking for fame and able in this way to secure it can produce such an effect, how much more (may we look for a greater result) from one whose rule is over heaven and earth, and holds all things in his treasury, who simply has his lodging in the six members of his body, whom his ears and eyes serve but as conveying emblematic images of things, who comprehends all his knowledge in a unity, and whose mind never dies! If such a man were to choose a day on which he would ascend far on high, men would (seek to) follow him there. But how should he be willing to occupy himself with other men?'

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外篇 - Outer Chapters

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知北游 - Knowledge Rambling in the North

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《知北游》 Library Resources
7 知北游:
婀荷甘与神农同学于老龙吉。神农隐几阖户昼瞑,婀荷甘日中奓户而入,曰:“老龙死矣!”神农隐几拥杖而起,嚗然放杖而笑,曰:“天知予僻陋慢訑,故弃予而死。已矣!夫子无所发予之狂言而死矣夫!”
Knowledge Rambling in the...:
A-he Gan and Shen Nong studied together under Lao-long Ji. Shen Nong was leaning forward on his stool, having shut the door and gone to sleep in the day time. At midday A-he Gan pushed open the door and entered, saying, 'Lao-long is dead.' Shen Nong leant forward on his stool, laid hold of his staff and rose. Then he laid the staff aside with a clash, laughed and said, 'That Heaven knew how cramped and mean, how arrogant and assuming I was, and therefore he has cast me off, and is dead. Now that there is no Master to correct my heedless words, it is simply for me to die!'
弇堈吊闻之,曰:“夫体道者,天下之君子所系焉。今于道,秋豪之端,万分未得处一焉,而犹知藏其狂言而死,又况夫体道者乎!视之无形,听之无声,于人之论者,谓之冥冥,所以论道,而非道也。”
Yan Gang, (who had come in) to condole, heard these words, and said, 'It is to him who embodies the Dao that the superior men everywhere cling. Now you who do not understand so much as the tip of an autumn hair of it, not even the ten-thousandth part of the Dao, still know how to keep hidden your heedless words about it and die - how much more might he who embodied the Dao do so! We look for it, and there is no form; we hearken for it, and there is no sound. When men try to discuss it, we call them dark indeed. When they discuss the Dao, they misrepresent it.'
于是泰清问乎无穷曰:“子知道乎?”无穷曰:“吾不知。”又问乎无为。无为曰:“吾知道。”曰:“子之知道,亦有数乎?”曰:“有。”曰:“其数若何?”无为曰:“吾知道之可以贵,可以贱,可以约,可以散。此吾所以知道之数也。”泰清以之言也问乎无始,曰:“若是,则无穷之弗知,与无为之知,孰是而孰非乎?”无始曰:“不知深矣,知之浅矣;弗知内矣,知之外矣。”于是泰清中而叹曰:“弗知乃知乎!知乃不知乎!孰知不知之知?”无始曰:“道不可闻,闻而非也;道不可见,见而非也;道不可言,言而非也。知形形之不形乎?道不当名。”
Hereupon Grand Purity asked Infinitude, saying, 'Do you know the Dao?' 'I do not know it,' was the reply. He then asked Do-nothing, Who replied, 'I know it.' 'Is your knowledge of it determined by various points?' 'It is.' 'What are they?' Do-nothing said, 'I know that the Dao may be considered noble, and may be considered mean, that it may be bound and compressed, and that it may be dispersed and diffused. These are the marks by which I know it.' Grand Purity took the words of those two, and asked No-beginning, saying, 'Such were their replies; which was right? and which was wrong? Infinitude's saying that he did not know it? or Do-nothing's saying that he knew it?' No-beginning said, 'The "I do not know it" was profound, and the "I know it" was shallow. The former had reference to its internal nature; the latter to its external conditions.' Grand Purity looked up and sighed, saying, 'Is "not to know it" then to know it? And is "to know it" not to know it? But who knows that he who does not know it (really) knows it?' No-beginning replied, 'The Dao cannot be heard; what can be heard is not It. The Dao cannot be seen; what can be seen is not It. The Dao cannot be expressed in words; what can be expressed in words is not It. Do we know the Formless which gives form to form? In the same way the Dao does not admit of being named.'
无始曰:“有问道而应之者,不知道也。虽问道者,亦未闻道。道无问,问无应。无问问之,是问穷也;无应应之,是无内也。以无内待问穷,若是者,外不观乎宇宙,内不知乎太初,是以不过乎昆仑,不游乎太虚。”
No-beginning (further) said, 'If one ask about the Dao and another answer him, neither of them knows it. Even the former who asks has never learned anything about the Dao. He asks what does not admit of being asked, and the latter answers where answer is impossible. When one asks what does not admit of being asked, his questioning is in (dire) extremity. When one answers where answer is impossible, he has no internal knowledge of the subject. When people without such internal knowledge wait to be questioned by others in dire extremity, they show that externally they see nothing of space and time, and internally know nothing of the Grand Commencement. Therefore they cannot cross over the Kun-lun, nor roam in the Grand Void.'

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道德经 - Dao De Jing

[Warring States (475 BC - 221 BC)] English translation: James Legge [?]
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[Also known as: 《老子》, "Tao Te Ching", "Laozi"]

2 道德经:
天下皆知美之为美,斯恶已。皆知善之为善,斯不善已。故有无相生,难易相成,长短相较,高下相倾,音声相和,前后相随。是以圣人处无为之事,行不言之教;万物作焉而不辞,生而不有。为而不恃,功成而弗居。夫唯弗居,是以不去。
Dao De Jing:
(The nourishment of the person)
All in the world know the beauty of the beautiful, and in doing this they have (the idea of) what ugliness is; they all know the skill of the skilful, and in doing this they have (the idea of) what the want of skill is. So it is that existence and non-existence give birth the one to (the idea of) the other; that difficulty and ease produce the one (the idea of) the other; that length and shortness fashion out the one the figure of the other; that (the ideas of) height and lowness arise from the contrast of the one with the other; that the musical notes and tones become harmonious through the relation of one with another; and that being before and behind give the idea of one following another. Therefore the sage manages affairs without doing anything, and conveys his instructions without the use of speech. All things spring up, and there is not one which declines to show itself; they grow, and there is no claim made for their ownership; they go through their processes, and there is no expectation (of a reward for the results). The work is accomplished, and there is no resting in it (as an achievement).
The work is done, but how no one can see;
'Tis this that makes the power not cease to be.

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14 道德经:
视之不见,名曰夷;听之不闻,名曰希;搏之不得,名曰微。此三者不可致诘,故混而为一。其上不皦,其下不昧。绳绳不可名,复归于无物。是谓无状之状无物之象,是谓惚恍。迎之不见其首,随之不见其后。执古之道,以御今之有。能知古始,是谓道纪。
Dao De Jing:
(The manifestation of the mystery)
We look at it, and we do not see it, and we name it 'the Equable.' We listen to it, and we do not hear it, and we name it 'the Inaudible.' We try to grasp it, and do not get hold of it, and we name it 'the Subtle.' With these three qualities, it cannot be made the subject of description; and hence we blend them together and obtain The One. Its upper part is not bright, and its lower part is not obscure. Ceaseless in its action, it yet cannot be named, and then it again returns and becomes nothing. This is called the Form of the Formless, and the Semblance of the Invisible; this is called the Fleeting and Indeterminable. We meet it and do not see its Front; we follow it, and do not see its Back. When we can lay hold of the Dao of old to direct the things of the present day, and are able to know it as it was of old in the beginning, this is called (unwinding) the clue of Dao.

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28 道德经:
知其雄,守其雌,为天下溪。为天下溪,常德不离,复归于婴儿。知其白,守其黑,为天下式。为天下式,常德不忒,复归于无极。知其荣,守其辱,为天下谷。为天下谷,常德乃足,复归于朴。朴散则为器,圣人用之,则为官长,故大制不割
Dao De Jing:
(Returning to simplicity)
Who knows his manhood's strength,
Yet still his female feebleness maintains;
As to one channel flow the many drains,
All come to him, yea, all beneath the sky.
Thus he the constant excellence retains;
The simple child again, free from all stains.

Who knows how white attracts,
Yet always keeps himself within black's shade,
The pattern of humility displayed,
Displayed in view of all beneath the sky;
He in the unchanging excellence arrayed,
Endless return to man's first state has made.
Who knows how glory shines,
Yet loves disgrace, nor ever for it is pale;
Behold his presence in a spacious vale,
To which men come from all beneath the sky.
The unchanging excellence completes its tale;
The simple infant man in him we hail.

The unwrought material, when divided and distributed, forms vessels. The sage, when employed, becomes the Head of all the Officers (of government); and in his greatest regulations he employs no violent measures.

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38 道德经:
上德不德,是以有德;下德不失德,是以无德。上德无为而无以为;下德为之而有以为。上仁为之而无以为;上义为之而有以为。上礼为之而莫之应,则攘臂而扔之。故失道而后德,失德而后仁,失仁而后义,失义而后礼。夫礼者,忠信之薄,而乱之首。前识者,道之华,而愚之始。是以大丈夫处其厚,不居其薄;处其实,不居其华。故去彼取此。
Dao De Jing:
(About the attributes of the Dao)
(Those who) possessed in highest degree the attributes (of the Dao) did not (seek) to show them, and therefore they possessed them (in fullest measure). (Those who) possessed in a lower degree those attributes (sought how) not to lose them, and therefore they did not possess them (in fullest measure).
(Those who) possessed in the highest degree those attributes did nothing (with a purpose), and had no need to do anything. (Those who) possessed them in a lower degree were (always) doing, and had need to be so doing.
(Those who) possessed the highest benevolence were (always seeking) to carry it out, and had no need to be doing so. (Those who) possessed the highest righteousness were (always seeking) to carry it out, and had need to be so doing.
(Those who) possessed the highest (sense of) propriety were (always seeking) to show it, and when men did not respond to it, they bared the arm and marched up to them.
Thus it was that when the Dao was lost, its attributes appeared; when its attributes were lost, benevolence appeared; when benevolence was lost, righteousness appeared; and when righteousness was lost, the proprieties appeared.
Now propriety is the attenuated form of leal-heartedness and good faith, and is also the commencement of disorder; swift apprehension is (only) a flower of the Dao, and is the beginning of stupidity.
Thus it is that the Great man abides by what is solid, and eschews what is flimsy; dwells with the fruit and not with the flower. It is thus that he puts away the one and makes choice of the other.

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41 道德经:
上士闻道,勤而行之;中士闻道,若存若亡;下士闻道,大笑之。不笑不足以为道。故建言有之:明道若昧进道若退夷道若纇上德若谷太白若辱;广德若不足;建德若偷质真若渝大方无隅;大器晚成;大音希声;大象无形;道隐无名。夫唯道,善贷且成。
Dao De Jing:
(Sameness and difference)
Scholars of the highest class, when they hear about the Dao, earnestly carry it into practice. Scholars of the middle class, when they have heard about it, seem now to keep it and now to lose it. Scholars of the lowest class, when they have heard about it, laugh greatly at it. If it were not (thus) laughed at, it would not be fit to be the Dao.
Therefore the sentence-makers have thus expressed themselves:
'The Dao, when brightest seen, seems light to lack;
Who progress in it makes, seems drawing back;
Its even way is like a rugged track.
Its highest virtue from the vale doth rise;
Its greatest beauty seems to offend the eyes;
And he has most whose lot the least supplies.
Its firmest virtue seems but poor and low;
Its solid truth seems change to undergo;
Its largest square doth yet no corner show
A vessel great, it is the slowest made;
Loud is its sound, but never word it said;
A semblance great, the shadow of a shade.'

The Dao is hidden, and has no name; but it is the Dao which is skilful at imparting (to all things what they need) and making them complete.

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43 道德经:
天下之至柔,驰骋天下之至坚。无有入无间,吾是以知无为之有益。不言之教,无为之益,天下希及之。
Dao De Jing:
(The universal use (of the action in weakness of the Dao))
The softest thing in the world dashes against and overcomes the hardest; that which has no (substantial) existence enters where there is no crevice. I know hereby what advantage belongs to doing nothing (with a purpose).
There are few in the world who attain to the teaching without words, and the advantage arising from non-action.

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