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《夏书 - Xia Shu》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《夏书》 Library Resources

禹贡 - Tribute of Yu

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《禹贡》 Library Resources

1 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
Yu divided the land. Following the course of the hills, he cut down the trees. He determined the highest hills and largest rivers (in the several regions).

2 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
With respect to Ji Zhou, he did his work at Hu-kou, and took effective measures at (the mountains) Liang and Qi. Having repaired the works on Tai-Yuan, he proceeded on to the south of (mount) Yue. He was successful with his labours on Tan-huai, and went on to the cross-flowing stream of Zhang. The soil of this province was whitish and mellow. Its contribution of revenue was the highest of the highest class, with some proportion of the second. Its fields were the average of the middle class. The (waters of the) Heng and Wei were brought to their proper channels, and Da-lu was made capable of cultivation. The wild people of the islands (brought) dresses of skins (i.e. fur dresses); keeping close on the right to the rocks of Jie, they entered the He.

3 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
Between the Ji and the He was Yan Zhou. The nine branches of the He were made to keep their proper channels. Lei-xia was made a marsh, in which (the waters of) the Yong and the Ju were united. The mulberry grounds were made fit for silkworms, and then (the people) came down from the heights, and occupied the grounds (below). The soil of this province was blackish and rich; the grass in it was luxuriant, and the trees grew high. Its fields were the lowest of the middle class. Its contribution of revenue was fixed at what would just be deemed the correct amount; but it was not required from it, as from the other provinces, till after it had been cultivated for thirteen years. Its articles of tribute were varnish and silk, and, in baskets, woven ornamental fabrics. They floated along the Ji and Ta, and so reached the He.

4 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
The sea and (mount) Dai were the boundaries of Qing Zhou. (The territory of) Yu-yi was defined; and the Wei and Zi were made to keep their (old) channels. Its soil was whitish and rich. Along the shore of the sea were wide tracts of salt land. Its fields were the lowest of the first class, and its contribution of revenue the highest of the second. Its articles of tribute were salt, fine cloth of dolichos fibre, productions of the sea of various kinds; with silk, hemp, lead, pine trees, and strange stones, from the valleys of Dai. The wild people of Lai were taught tillage and pasturage, and brought in their baskets the silk from the mountain mulberry tree. They floated along the Wen, and so reached the Ji.

5 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
The sea, mount Dai, and the Huai were (the boundaries of) Xu Zhou. The Huai and the Yi (rivers) were regulated. The (hills) Meng and Yu were made fit for cultivation. (The waters of) Da-ye were confined (so as to form a marsh); and (the tract of) Dong-Yuan was successfully brought under management. The soil of this province was red, clayey, and rich. Its grass and trees grew more and more bushy. Its fields were the second of the highest class; its contribution of revenue was the average of the second. Its articles of tribute were: earth of five different colours, variegated pheasants from the valleys of mount Yu, the solitary dryandra from the south of mount Yi, and the sounding-stones that (seemed to) float on the (banks of the) Si. The wild tribes about the Huai brought oyster-pearls and fish, and their baskets full of deep azure and other silken fabrics, chequered and pure white. They floated along the Huai and the Si, and so reached the He.

6 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
The Huai and the sea formed (the boundaries of) Yang Zhou. The (lake of) Peng-li was confined to its proper limits, and the sun-birds (the wild geese) had places to settle on. The three Jiang were led to enter the sea, and it became possible to still the marsh of Zhen. The bamboos, small and large, then spread about; the grass grew thin and long, and the trees rose high; the soil was miry. The fields of this province were the lowest of the lowest class; its contribution of revenue was the highest of the lowest class, with a proportion of the class above. Its articles of tribute were gold, silver, and copper; yao and kun stones; bamboos, small and large; (elephants') teeth, hides, feathers, hair, and timber. The wild people of the islands brought garments of grass, with silks woven in shell-patterns in their baskets. Their bundles contained small oranges and pummeloes, rendered when specially required. They followed the course of the Jiang and the sea, and so reached the Huai and the Si.

7 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
(Mount) Jing and the south of (mount) Heng formed (the boundaries of) Jing Zhou. The Jiang and the Han pursued their (common) course to the sea, as if they were hastening to court. The nine Jiang were brought into complete order. The Tuo and Qian (streams) were conducted by their proper channels. The land in (the marsh of) Yun (became visible), and (the marsh of) Meng was made capable of cultivation. The soil of this province was miry. Its fields were the average of the middle class; and its contribution of revenue was the lowest of the highest class. Its articles of tribute were feathers, hair, (elephants') teeth, and hides; gold, silver, and copper; chun trees, wood for bows, cedars, and cypresses; grindstones, whetstones, flint stones to make arrow-heads, and cinnabar; and the jun and lu bamboos, with the hu tree, (all good for making arrows) - of which the Three Regions were able to contribute the best specimens. The three-ribbed-rush was sent in bundles, put into cases. The baskets were filled with silken fabrics, azure and deep purple, and with strings of pearls that were not quite round. From the (country of the) nine Jiang, the great tortoise was presented when specially required (and found). They floated down the Jiang, the Tuo, the Qian, and the Han, and crossed (the country) to the Luo, whence they reached the most southern part of the He.

8 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
The Jing (mountain) and the He were (the boundaries of) Yu Zhou. The Yi, the Luo, the Chan, and the Jian were conducted to the He. The (marsh of) Rong-bo was confined within its proper limits. The (waters of that of) Ge were led to (the marsh of) Meng-zhu. The soil of this province was mellow; in the lower parts it was (in some places) rich, and (in others) dark and thin. Its fields were the highest of the middle class; and its contribution of revenue was the average of the highest class, with a proportion of the very highest. Its articles of tribute were varnish, hemp, fine cloth of dolichos fibre, and the boehmerea. The baskets were full of chequered silks, and of fine floss silk. Stones for polishing sounding-stones were rendered when required. They floated along the Luo, and so reached the He.

9 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
The south of (mount) Hua and the Blackwater, were (the boundaries of) Liang Zhou. The (hills) Min and Bo were made capable of cultivation. The Tuo and Qian streams were conducted by their proper channels. Sacrifices were offered to (the hills) Cai and Meng on the regulation (of the country about them). (The country of) the wild tribes about the He was successfully operated on. The soil of this province was greenish and light. Its fields were the highest of the lowest class; and its contribution of revenue was the average of the lowest class, with proportions of the rates immediately above and below. Its articles of tribute, were - the best gold, iron, silver, steel, flint stones to make arrow-heads, and sounding-stones; with the skins of bears, foxes, and jackals, and (nets) woven of their hair. From (the hill of) Xi-qing they came by the course of the Huan; floated along the Qian, and then crossed (the country) to the Mian; passed to the Wei, and (finally) ferried across the He.

10 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
The Black-water and western He were (the boundaries of) Yong Zhou. The Weak-water was conducted westwards. The Jing was led to mingle its waters with those of the Wei. The Qi and the Zhu were next led in a similar way (to the Wei), and the waters of the Feng found the same receptacle. (The mountains) Jing and Qi were sacrificed to. (Those of) Zhong-nan and Dun-we (were also regulated), and (all the way) on to Niao-shu. Successful measures could now be taken with the plains and swamps, even to (the marsh of) Zhu-ye. (The country of) San-wei was made habitable, and the (affairs of the) people of San-miao were greatly arranged. The soil of the province was yellow and mellow. Its fields were the highest of the highest class, and its contribution of revenue the lowest of the second. Its articles of tribute were the qiu jade and the lin, and (the stones called) lang-gan. Past Ji-shi they floated on to Long-men on the western He. They then met on the north of the Wei (with the tribute-bearers from other quarters) Hair-cloth and skins (were brought from) Kun-lun, Xi-zhi, and Ju-sou; the wild tribes of the West (all) coming to (submit to Yu's) arrangements.

11 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
(Yu) surveyed and described (the hills), beginning with Qian and Qi, and proceeding to mount Jing; then, crossing the He, Hu-kou, and Lei-shou, going on to Tai-yue. (After these came) Di-zhu and Xi-cheng, from which he went on to Wang-wu; (then there were) Tai-hang and Mount Heng, from which he proceeded to the rocks of Jie, where he reached the sea.

12 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
(South of the He, he surveyed) Xi-qing, Zhu-yu, and Niao-shu, going on to Tai-hua; (then) Xiong-er, Wai-fang, and Tong-pai, from which he proceeded to Pei-wei.

13 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
He surveyed and described Bo-zhong, going on to (the other) mount Jing; and Nei-fang, from which he went on to Da-bie.

14 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
(He did the same with) the south of mount Min, and went on mount Heng. Then crossing the nine Jiang, he proceeded to the plain of Fu-qian.

15 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
He traced the Weak-water as far as the He-li (mountains), from which its superfluous waters went away among the moving sands.

16 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
He traced the Black-water as far as San-wei, from which it (went away to) enter the southern sea.

17 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
He traced the He from Ji-shi as far as Long-men; and thence, southwards, to the north of (mount) Hua; eastward then to Di-zhu; eastward (again) to the ford of Meng; eastward (still) to the junction of the Luo; and then on to Da-pi. (From this the course was) northwards, past the Jiang-water, on to Da-lu; north from which the river was divided, and became the nine He, which united again, and formed the Meeting He, when they entered the sea.

18 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
From Bo-zhong he traced the Yang, which, flowing eastwards, became the Han. Farther east it became the water of Cang-lang; and after passing the three Dykes, it went on to Da-bie, southwards from which it entered the Jiang. Eastward still, and whirling on, it formed the marsh of Peng-li; and from that its eastern flow was the northern Jiang, as which it entered the sea.

19 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
From mount Min he traced the Jiang, which, branching off to the east, formed the Tuo; eastward again, it reached the Li, passed the nine Jiang, and went on to Dong-ling; then flowing east, and winding to the north, it joined (the Han) with its eddying movements. From that its eastern flow was the middle Jiang, as which it entered the sea.

20 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
He traced the Yan water, which, flowing eastward, became the Ji, and entered the He. (Thereafter) it flowed out, and became the Ying (marsh). Eastward, it issued forth on the north of Tao-qiu, and flowed farther east to (the marsh of) Ge; then it went north-east, and united with the Wen; thence it went north, and (finally) entered the sea on the east.

21 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
He traced the Huai from the hill of Tong-bai. Flowing east, it united with the Si and the Yi, and (still) with an eastward course entered the sea.

22 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
He traced the Wei from (the hill) Niao-shu-tong-xue. Flowing eastward, it united with the Feng, and eastwards again with the Jing. Farther east still, it passed the Qi and the Ju, and entered the He.

23 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
He traced the Luo from (the hill) Xiong-er. Flowing to the north-east, it united with the Jian and the Chan, and eastwards still with the Yi. Then on the north-east it entered the He.

24 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
(Thus), throughout the nine provinces a similar order was effected:--the grounds along the waters were everywhere made habitable; the hills were cleared of their superfluous wood and sacrificed to; the sources of the rivers were cleared; the marshes were well banked; and access to the capital was secured for all within the four seas. The six magazines (of material wealth) were fully attended to; the different parts of the country were subjected to an exact comparison, so that contribution of revenue could be carefully adjusted according to their resources. (The fields) were all classified with reference to the three characters of the soil; and the revenues for the Middle Region were established. He conferred lands and surnames. (He said), 'Let me set the example of a reverent attention to my virtue, and none will act contrary to my conduct.'

25 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
Five hundred li formed the Domain of the Sovereign. From the first hundred they brought as revenue the whole plant of the grain; from the second, the ears, with a portion of the stalk; from the third, the straw, but the people had to perform various services; from the fourth, the grain in the husk; and from the fifth, the grain cleaned.
Five hundred li (beyond) constituted the Domain of the Nobles. The first hundred li was occupied by the cities and lands of the (sovereign's) high ministers and great officers; the second, by the principalities of the barons; and the (other) three hundred, by the various other princes.
Five hundred li (still beyond) formed the Peace-securing Domain. In the first three hundred, they cultivated the lessons of learning and moral duties; in the other two, they showed the energies of war and defence.
Five hundred li (remoter still) formed the Domain of Restraint. The (first) three hundred were occupied by the tribes of the Î; the (other) two hundred, by criminals undergoing the lesser banishment.
Five hundred li (the most remote) constituted the Wild Domain. The (first) three hundred were occupied by the tribes of the Man; the (other) two hundred, by criminals undergoing the greater banishment.

26 禹贡:
Tribute of Yu:
On the east, reaching to the sea; on the west, extending to the moving sands; to the utmost limits of the north and south - his fame and influence filled up (all within) the four seas. Yu presented the dark-coloured symbol of his rank, and announced the completion of his work.

甘誓 - Speech at Gan

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《甘誓》 Library Resources

1 甘誓:
Speech at Gan:
There was a great battle at Kan. (Previous to it), the king called together the six nobles, (the leaders of his six hosts),
And said, 'Ah! all ye who are engaged in my six hosts, I have a solemn announcement to make to you. The lord of Hu wildly wastes and despises the five elements (that regulate the seasons), and has idly abandoned the three acknowledged commencements of the year. On this account Heaven is about to destroy him, and bring to an end his appointment (to Hu); and I am now reverently executing the punishment appointed by Heaven. If you, (the archers) on the left, do not do your work on the left, it will be a disregard of my orders. If you, (the spearmen) on the right, do not do your work on the right, it will be a disregard of my orders. If you, charioteers, do not observe the rules for the management of your horses, it will be a disregard of my orders. You who obey my orders, shall be rewarded before (the spirits of) my ancestors; and you who disobey my orders, shall be put to death before the altar of the spirits of the land, and I will also put to death your children.'

五子之歌 - Songs of the Five Sons

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《五子之歌》 Library Resources

1 五子之歌:
Songs of the Five...:
Tai Kang occupied the throne like a personator of the dead. By idleness and dissipation he extinguished his virtue, till the black-haired people all wavered in their allegiance. He, however, pursued his pleasure and wanderings without any self-restraint. He went out to hunt beyond the Luo, and a hundred days elapsed without his returning. (On this) Yi, the prince of Qiong, taking advantage of the discontent of the people, resisted (his return) on (the south of) the He. The (king's) five brothers had attended their mother in following him, and were waiting for him on the north of the Luo; and (when they heard of Yi's movement), all full of dissatisfaction, they related the Cautions of the great Yu in the form of songs.

2 五子之歌:
Songs of the Five...:
The first said,
'It was the lesson of our great ancestor:
The people should be cherished,
And not looked down upon.
The people are the root of a country;
The root firm, the country is tranquil.
When I look at all under heaven,
Of the simple men and simple women,
Any one may surpass me.
If the One man err repeatedly,
Should dissatisfaction be waited for till it appears?
Before it is seen, it should be guarded against.
In my dealing with the millions of the people,
I should feel as much anxiety as if I were driving six horses with rotten reins.
The ruler of men -
How should he be but reverent (of his duties)?'

3 五子之歌:
Songs of the Five...:
The second said,
'It is in the Lessons:
When the palace is a wild of lust,
And the country is a wild for hunting;
When spirits are liked, and music is the delight;
When there are lofty roofs and carved walls;
The existence of any one of these things
Has never been but the prelude to ruin.'

4 五子之歌:
Songs of the Five...:
The third said,
'There was the lord of Tao and Tang
Who possessed this region of Ji.
Now we have fallen from his ways,
And thrown into confusion his rules and laws;
The consequence is extinction and ruin.'

5 五子之歌:
Songs of the Five...:
The fourth said,
'Brightly intelligent was our ancestor,
Sovereign of the myriad regions.
He had canons, he had patterns,
Which he transmitted to his posterity.
The standard stone and the equalizing quarter
Were in the royal treasury.
Wildly have we dropt the clue he gave us,
Overturning our temple, and extinguishing our sacrifices.'

6 五子之歌:
Songs of the Five...:
The fifth said,
'Oh! whither shall we turn?
The thoughts in my breast make me sad
All the people are hostile to us;
On whom can we rely?
Anxieties crowd together in our hearts;
Thick as are our faces, they are covered with blushes.
We have not been careful of our virtue;
And though we repent, we cannot over-take the past.'

胤征 - Punitive Expedition of Yin

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《胤征》 Library Resources

1 胤征:
Punitive Expedition of Yin:...:
When Zhong Kang commenced his reign over all within the four seas, the marquis of Yin was commissioned to take charge of the (king's) six hosts. (At this time) the Xi and He had neglected the duties of their office, and were abandoned to drink in their (private) cities; and the marquis of Yin received the king's charge to go and punish them.
He made an announcement to his hosts, saying, 'Ah! ye, all my men, there are the well-counselled instructions of the sage (founder of our dynasty), clearly verified in their power to give stability and security: "The former kings were carefully attentive to the warnings of Heaven, and their ministers observed the regular laws (of their offices). All the officers (moreover) watchfully did their duty to assist (the government), and their sovereign became entirely intelligent." Every year, in the first month of spring, the herald, with his wooden-tongued bell, goes along the roads, (proclaiming), "Ye officers able to instruct, be prepared with your admonitions. Ye workmen engaged in mechanical affairs, remonstrate on the subjects of your employments. If any of you do not attend with respect (to this requirement), the country has regular punishments for you."
'Now here are the Xi and He. They have allowed their virtue to be subverted, and are besotted by drink. They have violated the duties of their office, and left their posts. They have been the first to let the regulating of the heavenly (bodies) get into disorder, putting far from them their proper business. On the first day of the last month of autumn, the sun and moon did not meet harmoniously in Fang. The blind musicians beat their drums; the inferior officers galloped, and the common people (employed about the public offices) ran about. The Xi and the He, however, as if they were (mere) personators of the dead in their offices, heard nothing and knew nothing - so stupidly went they astray (from their duties) in the matter of the heavenly appearances, and rendered themselves liable to the death appointed by the former kings. The statutes of government say, "When they anticipated the time, let them be put to death without mercy; when (their reckoning) is behind the time, let them be put to death without mercy."
'Now I, with you all, am entrusted with the execution of the punishment appointed by Heaven. Unite your strength, all of you warriors, for the royal House. Give me your help, I pray you, reverently to carry out the dread charge of the Son of Heaven.
'When the fire blazes over the ridge of Kun, gems and stones are burned together; but if a minister of Heaven exceed in doing his duty, the consequences will be fiercer than blazing fire. While I destroy, (therefore), the chief criminals, I will not punish those who have been forced to follow them; and those who have long been stained by their filthy manners will be allowed to renovate themselves.
'Oh! when sternness overcomes compassion, things are surely conducted to a successful issue. When compassion overcomes sternness, no merit can be achieved. All ye, my warriors, exert yourselves, and take warning, (and obey my orders)!'

2 胤征:

3 胤征:

4 胤征:

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