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Scope: 雲麓漫鈔
Condition : Contains text 「㲼」
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卷六

135
東坡《黃州詞》云:「人道是三國周郎赤壁。」蓋疑其非也。今江漢間言赤壁者五,漢陽、漢川、黃州、嘉魚、江夏,惟江夏合於史。漢陽之說,出於《荊州記》。漢川之說,蓋以赤壁草市,今其近處,亦有烏林。唐《漢陽圖經》云:「赤壁又名烏林,在川縣西八十里,跨南北川即漢川。」據此二說,相去不遠。然曹操初敗赤壁,再敗烏林,赤壁烏林乃二地;今指一地二名,已失之。況曹操舟師,自江陵順流而下,周瑜自柴桑今江州,溯流而上,兩軍相遇於赤壁,則赤壁當臨大江。今臨嶂、漢川皆非臨江處。《通典》、《元和郡國志》皆嘗辨川繆,則臨嶂繆亦可知。黃州出於《齊安拾遺》,以赤鼻山為赤壁見《水經》,以三江下口為夏口,以武昌華容鎮為曹操敗走華容,其說尤繆。蓋周瑜自柴桑至樊口,會劉備,與備進軍逆操,而後遇於赤壁,則赤壁當在樊口之上,今赤鼻止在鼻口對岸,何待進軍而後遇?又赤壁初戰,操軍不利,引次江北,而後有烏林之敗,則赤壁當在江南岸,今赤壁乃在江北岸,亦非也。又曹操既敗,自華容道走保南郡,漢南郡,今江陵、華容、監利、石首、武昌,華容豈走南郡路?嘉魚之說,唐章懷太子注《東漢?劉表傳》云:「赤壁,山名也,今在鄂州蒲圻。」《通典》引《括地志》亦同。《元和郡縣志》則云:「赤壁山在蒲圻縣一二十里,北岸烏林,與赤壁相對,即周瑜用黃蓋策,焚曹公舟船敗走處。」唐蒲圻臨江,今析為嘉魚,故說者據之而指今石頭口為地。然石頭口初未嘗以赤壁名,而《嘉魚縣圖經》亦云:「此地無赤壁。」考之《水經》,則不然。《水經》云:「江水左源流至今巴陵之下。」云:「江水左逕至烏林。」江水東注,凡《水經》言左者,皆北岸,右者,皆南岸酈道元注云:「村居也,吳黃蓋敗魏武於烏林,即是處。」又云:「江水至今漢陽界。」云「江水左逕百人山南。」酈道元注云:「右逕赤壁山,昔周瑜與黃蓋詐魏武大軍所起處。」據此,則赤壁、烏林相去二百餘里。《元和志》所指烏林,已與此合,而赤壁則不同。今漢陽百人山對岸大江中,有赤磯者在。《江夏縣境江圖》謂之赤圻,為江夏之說者曰:「此即道元所指也。曰磯、曰圻者,壁之誤耳。」嘗以為烏林、赤壁二戰相繼,烏林之捷,又自赤壁始,不應兩地懸絕如此。及觀《江表志》,赤壁敗後,黃蓋與操作詐降書,紿操以眾寡不敵。交鋒之日,蓋為前鋒,當因事變化,至戰日,蓋始用火攻之策,操敗走。如此,則二戰初不同日。方是時,操師八十萬,首尾相接二百里,不足訝。《水經》之言為然,《後漢紀》總書烏林赤壁,故後人指為一地。

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