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Scope: 说文解字注
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说文解字注

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注解:宴厶□也。厶,各本作私,今正。宴私,各本作私宴,今正。小雅楚茨:诸父兄弟,备言燕私。传曰:宴而尽其私恩也。尚书大传曰:旣侍其宗,然后得燕私。燕私者何也。祭已而与族人饮。饮而不醉,是不亲。醉而不出,是不敬。湛露传曰:夜饮,燕私也。宗子有事,则族人皆侍。不醉而出,是不亲也。醉而不出,是渫宗也。特牲馈食礼注曰。尚书传曰:宗室有事,族人皆侍终日。大宗已侍于宾,暮然后燕私。燕私者何也,祭已而与族人饮也。皆燕私之证。今湛露传亦讹为私燕矣。宴私之饮谓之,见韩诗。魏都赋:愔愔燕。张载注云:韩诗曰:宾尔笾豆,饮酒之。能者饮,不能者已谓之。东都赋:登降饫宴之礼旣毕。李善引薛君韩诗章句曰:曰饮酒之礼,跣而上坐者谓之宴。(今本跣上衍不字)徐坚初学记引韩诗说冣详,曰:夫饮之礼,不脱履而卽序者谓之礼。(此句礼当作饫)跣而上坐者谓之宴。能饮者饮,不能饮者已谓之。齐颜色,均众寡谓之沈。闭门不出客谓之湎。(客字依诗释文订)君子可以宴,可以。不可以沈,不可以湎。许云,宴私之饮也。正谓跣而升堂,能饮则饮,不能则已。本韩诗为说也。而毛诗常棣作饫。释言曰:饫,私也。毛传曰:饫,私也。不脱屦升堂谓之饫。毛之饫字,于韩为。毛以不脱屦升堂释饫,韩分别饫之名。数典独详。以国语考之。周语:彪傒曰:夫礼之立成者为饫,昭明大节而已。少曲与焉,是以为之日惕,其欲教民戒也。原公曰:禘郊之事,则有全烝。王公立饫,则有房烝。亲戚燕飨,则有淆烝。夫王公诸侯之有饫也,将以讲事成章,建大德昭大物也。故立成礼烝而已。饫以显物,燕以合好。岁饫不倦,时宴不淫。是则饫之礼大于宴。故饫主于敬,宴主于和。饫必立成,宴必坐。饫在昼,宴在夜。饫必屦而升堂,宴必跣。饫以建大德,昭大物,公之至者,不得云私。宴主饮酒以亲亲,故曰宴私。且周语分别其礼曰:王公立饫,则有房烝。亲戚飨宴,则有淆烝。是则王公立饫,同异姓皆在焉,不专亲戚。宴则惟同姓而已。故常棣、湛露、楚茨之燕私,皆同姓也。然则常棣当作,不当作饫,了然可见矣。故许于曰宴私饮也,用韩诗说也,而非与毛说异也。何以言之。葢常棣为正字,饫为音近叚借字。以韵言之,区声与豆具孺同部,而芺声不同部。毛、韩各有所受,往往毛多古字,韩为今字。此一条韩为正字,毛为叚借字。如斯干如鸟斯革,革训翼。韩作□,训翅。亦韩正字,毛叚借字也。毛云饫私也者,用尔雅释言文。葢作尔雅时常棣诗已作饫矣,故尔雅云饫私也。而毛仍之。毛公知诗饫非国语饫也。故足之曰脱屦升堂谓之饫,卽韩之脱屦升坐谓之宴也。宴是一事,言宴而在其中。言脱屦升堂而能者饮,不能者已在其中矣。以诗尔雅之饫,别国语之饫。以脱屦升堂,说尔雅之私,毛义也。下文又曰:九族会曰和孺属也。王与亲戚燕则尚毛。是为燕,而非国语之饫可知矣。今毛传作不脱屦□堂谓之饫者,由不善读毛者摭取国语及韩诗说妄增不字,自汉已然。郑君不能辩,乃强为之说曰:听朝为公,于堂为私。非古燕私之义也。又云图非常,议大疑为私,非国语说也。且兄弟旣具笺云:九族从上至高祖下至元孙之亲也。属者以昭穆相次序。妻子好合笺云:王与族人燕,则宗妇内宗之属亦从后于房中。是郑明知诗言燕私,不得参之以立成之饫,摠由此诗字作饫而义实。读者不据韩诗,不考燕饫之别,莫得其解。许君食部饫下云:燕食也。亦依附毛义而失之。角弓传曰:饫,饱也。饫卽饫,此饫之本义也。从酉区声。依据切。古音在四部。读如讴。玉篇、广韵作□。于娱切。

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