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Scope: 陔餘叢考
Condition : Contains text 「鼚」
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卷二十三

3
四言詩四言詩,當以《舜典》《喜起之歌》為首,大禹所訓「內作色荒,外作禽荒」六句,亦濫觴也。《三百篇》外,如《帝王世紀》所載《擊壤歌》「日出而作,日入而息。鑿井而飲,耕田而食。」《尚書大傳》所紀《卿雲歌》「明明上天,燦然星陳。日月光華,寵於一人,乎鼓之,軒乎舞之。精華既竭,褰裳去之。」又《塗山歌》「綏綏白狐,九尾龐龐。」《左傳》所載《虞人箴》曰:「芒芒禹跡,畫為九州。經啟九道,民有寢廟,獸有茂草。各有攸處,德用不擾。」《穆天子傳》所載《西王母謠》「白雲在天,山陵自出。道里悠遠,山川間之。將子無死,尚復能來。」《戰國策》所記荀卿作歌曰:「以瞽為明,山聾為聰。以是為非,以吉為凶。嗚乎上天,曷惟其同!」其音節皆簡貴高古,縱出於後人擬作,要非漢以後所能也。蓋周、秦以上及漢初詩皆四言,自五言興而四言遂少。然漢、魏、六朝亦尚有為之者。《文心雕龍》以韋孟諷諫詩為四言首唱,此後如相如《封禪頌》、傅毅《迪志》詩、張茂先《勵志》詩、陶淵明《停雲》詩,皆傑出者。唐以後則四言遂絕,如李白「羅幃舒卷,似有人開。明月直入,無心可猜」,及柳子厚《皇雅》,皆僅見者。東坡作《觀棋詩記廬山白鶴觀事》:「不聞人聲,但聞落子。」亦偶一為之。方岳《深雪偶談》謂:五言而上,世人往往各極其才之所至,惟四言輒不能工。劉後村謂《三百篇》在前之故。

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