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Scope: 陔馀丛考
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卷二十三

3
四言诗四言诗,当以《舜典》《喜起之歌》为首,大禹所训「内作色荒,外作禽荒」六句,亦滥觞也。《三百篇》外,如《帝王世纪》所载《击壤歌》「日出而作,日入而息。凿井而饮,耕田而食。」《尚书大传》所纪《卿云歌》「明明上天,灿然星陈。日月光华,宠于一人,乎鼓之,轩乎舞之。精华既竭,褰裳去之。」又《涂山歌》「绥绥白狐,九尾庞庞。」《左传》所载《虞人箴》曰:「芒芒禹迹,画为九州。经启九道,民有寝庙,兽有茂草。各有攸处,德用不扰。」《穆天子传》所载《西王母谣》「白云在天,山陵自出。道里悠远,山川间之。将子无死,尚复能来。」《战国策》所记荀卿作歌曰:「以瞽为明,山聋为聪。以是为非,以吉为凶。呜乎上天,曷惟其同!」其音节皆简贵高古,纵出于后人拟作,要非汉以后所能也。盖周、秦以上及汉初诗皆四言,自五言兴而四言遂少。然汉、魏、六朝亦尚有为之者。《文心雕龙》以韦孟讽谏诗为四言首唱,此后如相如《封禅颂》、傅毅《迪志》诗、张茂先《励志》诗、陶渊明《停云》诗,皆杰出者。唐以后则四言遂绝,如李白「罗帏舒卷,似有人开。明月直入,无心可猜」,及柳子厚《皇雅》,皆仅见者。东坡作《观棋诗记庐山白鹤观事》:「不闻人声,但闻落子。」亦偶一为之。方岳《深雪偶谈》谓:五言而上,世人往往各极其才之所至,惟四言辄不能工。刘后村谓《三百篇》在前之故。

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