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卷六

24
易有說卦所以明其象而示其教也卦有四徳曰元亨利貞雖文言具載其端後之學者或未暢其義故愚逺取諸天近取諸物復廣其說焉夫元者何也道之純者也於乾為資始於坤為發生於人為溫良為樂善為好生於國為行慶為刑措於家為父慈為子孝為嘉榖為四靈其迹異其道同統而言之則善之長也夫亨者何也道之通者也於天為三辰昭㑹於地為萬物繁殖於人為得時茂勳於國為聖賢相遇為朝覲會同為制禮作樂為上下交泰於家為父子為夫婦為九族相睦於物為雲龍為風虎為魚水其迹異其道同統而言之則嘉之會也夫利者何也道之用者也於天為膏雨於地為百川於人為兼濟於國為恵民為日中市於家為豐財為富其隣於物為騶虞為得食雞其迹異其道同統而言之義之和也夫貞者何也道之守者也於天為行健於地為厚載於人為正直為忠毅於國為典則為權衡於家為男女正位為長子主器於物為金玉為𧴛豸其迹異其道同統而言之則事之幹也行此四者之謂道述此四者之謂教四者之用天所不能違而況於人乎況於萬物乎故君子不去也天微四徳天地不行地微四徳坤儀不寧人微四徳則無令名國家無四徳則風教不倫物無四徳則祥瑞不生惟乾坤之徳統其四者焉餘卦則鮮克備矣惟聖人體乾而行後之希聖者亦鮮克備矣堯舜率天下以仁乾元之君也湯武應天順人開國除亂履其亨而闡其利者也夏禹治水乾之成功幹其事者也體其元而兼其三者堯舜也歟後之人孰能生知宜乎跂踵而勤行矣處必親仁元之基也動能俟時亨之始也進思濟物利之方也守誠不囘貞之道也四者未能兼行則出乎彼而入乎此出乎此而入乎彼周旋進退不離四者之中如是則其殆庶幾乎說春秋序聖人之為春秋也因東魯之文追西周之制褒貶大舉賞罰盡在謹聖帝明皇之法峻亂臣賊子之防其間華衮貽榮蕭斧示辱一字之下百王不刋游夏既無補於前公榖蓋有失於後雖丘明之傳頗多氷釋而素王之言尚或天逺不講不議其無津涯今褒博者流咸志於道以天命之正性脩王佐之異材不深春秋吾未信也三傳房公有元凱之癖兼仲舒之學丈席之際精義入神吾輩方扣聖門宜循師道粹屬詞比事之教洞尊王黜霸之經由此登太山而知髙入宗廟而見美升堂覩奥必有人焉君子哉無廢

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