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Chinese Text Project Wiki
-> -> -> Search for "黄"
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Scope: 三略直解
Condition : Contains text 「黄」
Total 7

卷上

2
三者,上中下三卷也。畧者,謀畧也。世以為石公書授張子房於圯橋者也。按《漢書·藝文志》云:張良韓信序次兵法,凡百八十二家,删取要用,定著三十五家,並不言有三畧者。漢成帝時任宏論次兵書,分權謀、形勢、陰陽、技巧四種,共五十三家,而三畧亦不載焉。史稱張良少匿下邳,與父老遇於圯橋,出書一編,曰:「讀此則為王者師」,遂去。旦日視之,乃太公兵法也。《通鑑綱目》亦曰:張良與沛公遇於留,良數以太公兵法說沛公,公善用之,常用其䇿與他人言輙不省。良曰「沛公殆天授」,遂不去。正義曰:《七錄》云「太公兵法一帙三卷」,唐李靖亦云「張良所學,太公六韜三畧是也」,然則三畧本太公書,而石公或推演之以授子房,所以兵家者流至今因以為石公書也。宋張商英又云「素書乃石公所授子房者也,世人多以三畧為是,蓋傳之者誤耳。素書者,晉亂有盜發子房塜,於枕中獲之,上有祕戒,不許傳於不神不聖之人」,又摘取書中數語以證子房之事,且曰「自漢以來,章句文辭之學熾,而知道之士極少,如諸葛亮、王猛、房矯、裴度等,雖號為一時賢相,至於先天大道,曽未知其髣髴。此書所以不傳於不道不神不聖不賢之人也」。今觀素書原始章首論「道德仁義禮」,本三畧下卷中文,因而推廣之耳。下文「賢人君子明於盛衰之道、通乎成敗之數、審乎理亂之勢、達乎去就之理,故潛居抱道、以待其時,若時至而行,則能極人臣之位;得機而動,則能成絶代之功,是以其道足髙而名揚於後世,及能有其有者安、貪人之有者殘;舍己以教人者逆、正己以化人者順」,皆三畧全文而少變之耳。其後五章亦是,雜取古書中語,而更換字樣聨屬之,非秦漢以前古書,況商英之言多涉虛無,觀其曰「雖有雖無之謂道,非有非無之謂神,有而無之之謂聖,無而有之之謂賢」,又曰「老子言其體,故云:禮者忠信之薄,而亂之首。石公言其用,故云:道德仁義禮不可無一焉,此其深於斯道者之言也」,素書果出於子房塜中,而隋唐以來名儒碩士何故無一言及之?恐是後人依倣而為之者,所以宋先正程朱輩俱不暇論也。今亦未敢必以為然,姑明其大槩,係於三畧直解,下以俟知者焉。
10
大凡天下之事,端倪本末未曽顯見,人莫得而知也。天地之神明,即所謂二氣之良能也。天之道,春而夏,夏而秋,秋而冬,冬而復春矣;地之道,生而長,長而收,收而藏,藏而復生矣。興亡盛衰,榮枯代謝,是與物推移者也。故為將者,或奇或正,變動無常,因敵之強,弱虛實而轉化焉。「不為事先」,謂不先人而首事也。人動而我輙隨而應之,故能謀制無疆而扶成天威,康正乎八極,宻定乎九夷,知此謀者真可為帝王之師。此子房所以佐漢髙滅秦項、定四海為帝王者師也。八極者,四方四維之盡處也;九夷者,畎夷、于夷、方夷、夷、白夷、赤夷、元夷、風夷、陽夷是也。
54
昔者良將之用兵,有人饋獻簞醪者。簞,竹器漆之可盛酒;河,北方流水之通名,是時三軍皆渴,一簞之酒不足飲之,故使投之河,與士卒同流而共飲。三軍之士思為致死者,以滋味之能及已而將不獨飲也。按此是勾踐事,豈石公引之而増廣其說歟?或踐之前別有以酒投諸河而飲三軍者歟?

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