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Scope: 大雲山房文稿初集
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卷一

4
孔子日性相近也習相遠也曰唯上智與下愚不移言性者主孔子之言而已孟子曰人無有不善曰乃若其情則可以為善矣若夫為不善非才之罪也宋之程子為之說曰孔子言氣質之性也性之本卽理也孟子之言性善者此也噫性一而已孔子言其一孟子又言其一聖賢固若是乎哉是說也吾不敢以云吾之言性主孔子之言而巳曰然則孟子之言非歟曰孟子之言卽孔子之言也程子之為之說非也何以言之性者自乎人而言之者也自乎人而言之蓋郛實乎氣質者也善者自乎性而言之者也自乎性而言之蓋萌達乎氣質者也孔子孟子之言皆言此性也何以言之性者具於心者也性之發為情輔情而行者為才才者知與能是也是如火然烺然而耀心之知灼然而然心之能炎然而上心之性上者火之性也善者人之性也情則自善而之惡其返也自惡而之善才之所至如其情是故烺然者上行而耀下行而耀旁行而亦耀心之知知善能盡知惡亦能盡也灼然者上行而然下行而然旁行而亦然心之能為善能達為惡亦能達也唯炎然而上者抑之下則游障之旁則搖其炎然者得隙則越焉何也其性也是故火之性上行之時其性上旁行下行之時其性亦上也人之性為善之時其性善為惡之時其性亦善不為善不為惡之時其性亦善也堯舜湯武皆性善也諛蹻蹠者不以為愚以為聖蹻蹠受之其性善也若是者孟子之言也其同於孔子奈何曰善也者統乎智與愚言之也近也者別乎智與愚言之也上下也者極乎智與愚言之也其善何也曰性也其近何也曰性也善故近也近故無不善也是故智之性亦善也愚之性亦善也上智下愚之性皆善也其智愚上下何也曰才也其智愚而移何也曰情之遷也其才能赴之也是習之驗者也其智愚上下而不移何也曰才之不遷也其情不能強之也是習之不驗者也性宥乎才發乎情習動乎情竭乎才移不移者知與能為之也才也非性也是故才行乎情之善其性之善無銖兩之加也才行乎情之不善其性之善無銖兩之耗也故曰善也孔子曰一陰一陽之謂道繼之者善也成之者性也以命言性而善者也孟子曰惻隱之心人皆有之羞惡之心人皆有之辭讓之心人皆有之是非之心人皆有之以情言性而善者也故曰孟子之言即孔子之言也程子之為之說非也雖然人之才有智焉有愚焉有上下焉其上下之中抑有大小焉聖與聖十其量賢與賢百其力庸與庸千其用姦與姦萬其為束藴而庸庸積薪而炥焚山燎原而萬人皆卻走皆如其分之所至而已是火之才也而豈火之性哉曰堯舜湯武蹻蹠皆性善是無差也無差者理也其何異於程子之說歟曰程子之言善離氣質而言也吾之言善不離氣質而言也夫火之炎然而上非火之氣質為之耶且如程子之說有氣質卽有不善是與於性惡之說也曰然則由子之說謂氣質無惡可乎曰非也向固言之矣言氣質者兼言知與能各有其善惡火之烺然灼然是也言性之善者不兼言知與能火之炎然是也無智愚上下之殊曰孟子之言性皆言氣質乎曰無氣質是無性也孟子曰命也有性焉性也有命焉曰形色天性也是也子思子曰天命之謂性率性之謂道卽孟子之言也曰修道之謂敎則與孔子之言若相發然此傳孔子而之乎孟子者也韓子曰性之品有上中下上焉者善焉而已矣中焉者可導而上下也下焉者惡而已矣是以才言性也戾乎孟子卽戾乎孔子者也以為祖孔子非也

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