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Scope: 武昌紀事
Condition : Contains text 「磺」
Total 3

武昌紀事

94
古今軍中利器,異時殊宜,近惟火炮最擅制勝。我朝開國,及平定西域,征兩金川,前後大小戰功,皆賴其猛烈之力。欽定皇朝禮器圖式,詳載諸炮名式,如天聰五年造紅夷大炮,名曰天佑助威大將軍。其後復造神威大將軍、神威無敵大將軍、武成永固大將軍皆是。此次賊寇武昌,城上置大炮自七八百斤至千斤者,轟擊皆不能踰江,約計炮子所及,僅三五里而止,令人憤懣。僉咎鑄法不精,弗如登舟之炮可擊四十里,東粵之炮可穿土尋丈,為能得力,竊謂此乃火藥未盡,善炮不任過也。《武備志》詳載造火藥法,以研極細,置手心燃之,不爇手為佳。近又見勞司馬光泰所著《炮藥說》,亦極明白精當,爰節錄之,以備采擇。其說云:煉硝煎至二三次,白糖以去盡其泥,蘿葡以去盡其鹽,雪水以去盡其礬。然後取面上之牙入,用其底清水漂之,盡如雪體而止。其次煉,茶油煎之以去其面,牛油煎之以去其底。尤重選炭,洋人用藤炭,俄羅斯用布花炭。中國無藤,麻桿代之布花,用紜線絞把,鍛以良工,自能成炭。又參用葫蘆殼炭、摩犀公角炭。大梅片面製法,柳炭照常麻桿去頭尾,火候宜細鍛,葫蘆殼亦同摩犀公角打碎,以鐵鍋鍛之,使燒透煙盡而止。再以芭蕉樹取汁多煎之,次日澄清,去其水,加大梅片,共入鍋內。鍋外用滾水泡之,使鎔化成糊,收存待用。每藥一百竹,用淨硝七十六斤,淨十一斤、麻桿炭四斤、柳炭四斤、布花炭四斤、葫蘆殼炭半斤、公犀角二兩、梅片二兩,鍛煉成糊。入汾酒二十斤,合舂為藥,舂力愈多愈好,研煉有光。然後羅篩成細粒,以少許置掌中,火試之不燒手,此為上藥。先時須較準各炮食藥份量,一一記明,某炮食藥若干,用紅布袋盛之,配合藥缸大小裝入。再用引門鐵錐探入,刺破布袋,然後下烘藥點放,乃可得用。至放炮之法,遲速疾徐,更宜講求。凡大炮裝藥甚難,不可輕放,必待賊將近,可以一放成功。否則賊未至,炮先鳴後無以續,即抬炮鳥銃亦然。五放則炮身通紅,不能入藥,故點放不可不慎。惟子母鐵炮,自朝至暮,可連環接放,最為得用。苟能多制此炮,配用此藥,何賊不可克?何敵不可攻?孔子曰:「工欲善其事,必先利其器。」此炮此藥,即利器之謂。
98
初六日,賊入城日,眾皆居長街列肆及人家大廈。賊收羅軍器,使人舁火藥局硝入船。偽東王楊秀清傳令止殺。脅城中人相從,謂之拜上,蓋入彼教,必以拜上帝為重也。分設寫名數館,從之者皆至館報明名氏年籍,登簿記注。既寫名則群居一所,初以十人為一館,旋以二十五人為一館,皆沒頭目領之。荊門知州金雲門,休寧人,以寒素起家,潔身愛民,荊楚之人甚德之。是時奉檄在外,家留城中官邸,城破,室汪氏二女,皆自縊。弟人銘守尸三日不食。賊至,排闥大呼殺妖,人銘憑樓欄從容云:「我兄為清白吏,何妖之云?」賊怒登樓,既見三尸,始相視歎息。已欲脅人銘降,人銘據胡床仰視大言曰:「死耳,降則不能也。」意態自若。賊目壯之,往復婉言,勸使拜上。乃曰:「無論大節萬無可踰,且我一降,對此三尸何?」賊目知其心不可回,遂弗強。賊以巾蒙首,不戴小帽,衣無領,無馬蹄袖,使民間效其服飾,故帽領等物,亦皆棄置弗敢御。惟人銘一無更易,自始至終,抗義不撓,可謂難矣。徽言嘗書其事,匯入文集中。而識其崖略於此。賊搜城中米鹽,日分給各館,使人毀窗欞及木具為薪。賊殺偽聖庫於長街汪姓綢店,凡珍貴之物咸納焉。賊於城之東南北三方,距城半里許,築長牆固守於內,而城上不多設備,僅十數賊居敵樓。又於黃鵠山脊起望樓,高數丈,我兵來攻,兩陣相接,賊於望樓中窺見,即以次飛報,乃整眾憑城而守,餘日未嘗登陴也。

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