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-> -> 卷二考證

《卷二考證》[View] [Edit] [History]

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尚書注疏卷二考證舜典序疏敬康生句芒句芒生蟜牛○臣召南按此文据帝繫與大禹謨疏所引正同句芒史記作句望蟜牛史記作橋牛漢書亦作蟜牛師古曰蟜音矯溫恭允塞傳疏毛傳訓塞為實○實監本訛貴今改正納于大麓傳麓錄也納舜使大錄萬幾之政○臣召南按以錄訓麓義終未安史記曰堯使舜入山林川澤可謂確當且錄尚書之名起于成帝時王鳳至東京每帝初立輒置太傅一人錄尚書事魏晉以來遂稱錄公沈約宋志引王肅注納于大麓曰堯納舜於尊顯之官大錄萬幾之政也先儒每謂王肅嘗見孔傳此亦一証但舜已宅百揆即是大錄萬幾之政何必複見此文乎林之奇辨傳誤是也
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在璿璣玉衡以齊七政傳王者正天文之器○王者監本訛玉者今改正
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又傳七政日月五星各異政○李光地曰七政之行不齊而一政之行又自不齊故日則有贏縮月五星則有遲疾而五星且有留退虞周歩推之法不可聞已後代考測至今日而始明其說曰七政皆終古平行也因有高卑逺近而生遲疾皆視行也天以圓而運七政逐天亦以圓而運如丸珠之隨盤皆自作廻環之勢非逕行也故因行而生輪因輪而生高下逺近仰而視之贏縮遲疾以至留退皆由於此矣然日者從天其輪一而已月五星從天又從日故有隨天之輪又有逐日之輪兩者相加然後高下之視逕遲疾之視差一一可以籌䇿運算而坐致之蓋雖古所未講而其理不誣也臣召南按孔傳觧政字即天官家日德月刑木仁火禮金義水智土信之說故下文云以審已當天心與否也但經文正與堯典歴象日月星辰意同傳說非是
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又疏天包地外猶卵之褁黃○晉志本文卵作殻又疏晉世姜笈張衡葛洪皆論渾天之義○臣召南按張衡二字衍文也玉海引此疏直云姜笈葛洪甚是
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又疏太史丞錢樂鑄銅作渾天儀○陳師凱曰錢樂本名樂之孔疏脫之字耳
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肆類于上帝音義王云上帝天也馬云上帝太一神在紫微宮天之最尊者○監本誤以此二十四字為孔傳今改正
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至于岱宗柴○朱子曰注家以至于岱宗柴為句某謂當以柴望秩于山川為句如柴望大告武成漢郊祀志亦云柴望秩于山川臣召南按傳云燔柴祭天告至則是至于岱宗望秩于山川於義自通羣后四朝傳各會朝于方岳之下凡四處故曰四朝○臣召南按如孔傳是天子有巡狩諸侯無述職也史記注引鄭康成曰巡狩之年諸侯見於方岳之下其間四年四方諸侯分來朝于京師也其說逺勝孔傳乃釋文引鄭云四朝四季朝京師也說又微異然亦勝孔傳矣
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疏以一黍之廣度之千二百黍為一分○臣照按漢志本文云一黍之廣度之九十分黃鍾之長為一分不云千二百黍也宋皇祐中房庶言得古本漢志云一黍之起積一千二百黍之廣度之九十分今丈脫起積一千二百黍之八字當時范鎮力主其說而司馬光極闢之此疏引漢志云云然則唐初本固有不同但以千二百黍為一分則分固不得若是廣如讀去聲謂是黃鍾之一分則語固欠明又不得接下十分為寸句當必有訛脫字也
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又疏十龠為合○臣召南按漢志本文作合龠為合宋祁曰合龠當為十龠据此疏則孔氏所見漢志作十龠矣蔡傳即据此疏亦作十龠
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帝曰俞汝往哉○顧炎武曰古堯典舜典合為一篇故格于文祖之後四岳之咨必稱舜曰者以別於上文之帝也至其命禹始稱帝曰問荅之辭已明則無嫌
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益拜稽首疏益是臯陶之子臯陶即庭堅也益在八凱之內○臣召南按臯陶即庭堅左傳可据若益則史記彼此不符但益既與臯陶並列為八凱其非父子顯然孔疏据史記謂是臯陶之子誤矣詩言志歌永言聲依永律和聲○李光地曰虞書命夔先言詩後言聲律敎胄子之事辨志為先也周禮太師先言聲律後言六詩敎瞽矇之事審音為重也夔曰於予擊石拊石百獸率舞○劉敞曰益稷之末又有夔曰於云云然則舜典之末衍一簡耳帝曰咨汝二十有二人傳禹垂益伯夷夔龍六人新命有職四岳十二牧凡二十二人○臣召南按孔傳之夫在解四岳為四人故于九官中强分禹垂六人為新命夫稷契臯陶大聖大賢不在二十二人之數可乎且十二牧中豈必盡出新命四岳則歴官為最久矣又何以得并數之
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尚書注疏卷二考證
URN: ctp:ws73415

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