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-> -> 卷十九

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钦定四库全书
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乐书卷十九
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宋 陈𤾉 撰
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礼记训义
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乐记
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德者性之端也乐者徳之华也
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天命之谓性率性之谓道得道之谓徳则徳固不足尽性之全特性之端而已仁之实事亲是也义之实从兄是也乐之实乐斯二者是也则乐固不足既徳之实特徳之华而已以徳为性之端则道其性之本欤以乐为徳之华则徳其乐之实欤先王作乐以崇德奏之于诗为徳言咏之于歌为徳音形之于舞为徳容故尧之大章舜之大韶禹之大夏汤之大濩岂皆足以既徳之实邪不过形容其英华而已由是观之明君务以徳称乐而日趋于治其本先立矣暴君务以乐荡徳而日趋于乱其本先亡矣徳本也乐末也知所本末可与论乐矣乐为徳之华其不可去如此老子曰五音令人耳聋庄子亦曰擢乱六律铄絶竽瑟塞瞽旷之耳而天下人始含其明矣非老庄与圣人异意也方其救末以复本其言不得不尔夏以荣华为功秋以毁折反根其意亦何异此莫非华也礼为道之华乐为徳之华
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金石丝竹乐之器也
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乐出于虚寓于实出于虚则八音㝠于道寓于实则八音丽于器器具而天地万物之声可得而考焉故凡物之盈于天地之间若坚若脆若劲若韧若实若虚若沉若浮皆得效其响焉故八物各音而同和也自葛天氏作八阕之乐少昊氏效八风之调而八音固已大备后世虽有作者皆不能易兹八物矣金声舂容秋分之音也而莫尚于锺石声温润立冬之音也而莫尚于磬丝声纎㣲夏至之音也而莫尚于琴瑟竹声清越春分之音也而莫尚于管龠匏声崇聚立春之音也而笙竽系焉土声函胡立秋之音也而埙缶繋焉革声隆大冬至之音也而鼗鼓系焉木声无馀立夏之音也而柷敔系焉然金多失之重石多失之轻丝失之细竹失之髙匏失之长土失之下革失之洪木失之短要之八者不相夺伦然后其乐和而无失也记论八音多矣举其始言之不过曰施之金石要其终言之不过曰匏竹在下兼始中终言之则曰金石丝竹乐之器也乃若论其详舎周官太师之职何以哉盖乐器重者从细轻者从大大不逾宫细不逾羽细大之中则角而已莫重于金故尚羽莫轻于瓦丝故尚宫轻于金重于瓦丝者石也故尚角匏竹非有细大之从也故尚议革木非有清浊之变也故一声然金石则土类西凝之方也故与土同位于西匏竹则木类东生之方也故与木同位于东丝成于夏故琴瑟在南革成于冬故鼗鼓在北大师之序八音以金石土为先革丝次之木匏竹为后者盖西者以秋时言之声之方也虚者乐所自出声之本也故音始于西而成于东于西则金石先于土者以隂逆推其所始故也于东则匏竹后于木者以阳顺序其所生故也革丝居南北之正先革而后丝者岂亦先虚之意欤此言乐之器荀卿言所以道徳者徳待器而后达故也
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诗言其志也歌咏其声也舞动其容也
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在心为志发言为诗诗也者言之合于法度而志至焉者也故诗之所言在志不在声怒则争鬬喜则咏歌歌也者志之所甚可而声形焉者也故歌之所咏在声不在志哀则辟踊乐则舞蹈舞也者蹈厉有节而容成焉者也故舞之所动非志也非声也一于容而已矣以诗序求之诗者志之所之情动于中而形于言诗言其志也言之不足故嗟叹之嗟叹之不足故永歌之歌咏其声也歌咏不足故不知手之舞之足之蹈之舞动其容也盖诗为乐之章必待歌之抗坠端折然后其声足以合奏歌为乐之音必待舞之周旋诎信然后其容足以中节歌登于堂而合奏舞降于庭而中节则至矣尽矣不可以有加矣其化岂有不神其神岂有不尽邪记曰歌之为言也长言之也说之故言之言之不足故长言之均是歌也或长其言或咏其声以言心声故也歌先之舞次之者乐以无所因为上有所待为下故也古之教六诗者以六徳为之本以六律为之音以六徳为本故自乐器推而上之及于徳者性之端乐者徳之华也以六律为音故自乐器推而下之及于歌咏其声舞动其容也由是观之圣人非恶歌也恶其酣尔非恶舞也恶其屡尔故酣歌恒舞商书儆之屡舞跹跹周诗刺之然则书美舜乐则曰诗言志歌永言声依永律和声而不及舞大司乐序周乐则奏律歌吕而舞六乐者岂非帝者徳全而乐简王者业大而乐备故邪扬雄曰周之礼乐庶事之备信乎
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原阙
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也类皆执羽大濩而下武舞也类皆执干则大舞必用小舞之仪小舞不必用大舞之章征诛揖逊之义尽于此矣非穷神知化孰究之哉然则太司乐祀天神祭地示有歌致天神地示则无歌小师大祭祀大飨登歌小祭祀小乐事则不登歌何也曰致天神地示无歌犹大神之不祼也小祭祀小乐事不登歌犹小祭祀之不兴舞也
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乐者心之动也声者乐之象也文采节奏声之饰也君子动其本乐其象治其饰
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容从声生声从志起志从心𤼵是知诗与歌舞合而为乐皆本于心焉盖心者道之主宰反者道之动乐以反为文体道之动者也故曰乐者心之动也人心之动物使之然感于物而动故形于声形于声则有向于器而非器犹为之象而已故曰声乐之象也青与赤谓之文五色备谓之采则文于采为略采于文为备止乐谓之节作乐谓之奏则奏于乐为始节于乐为终要皆非声之质也声之饰而已故曰文采节奏声之饰也君子致乐以治心则易直子谅之心油然生矣动其本之谓也施于金石越于声音乐其象之谓也省其文采广其节奏治其饰之谓也君子之于乐以动其心为本则乐其象者干也治其饰者末也以乐其声为象则动其本者道也治其饰者器也干则非本非末而本末待之而立道则非象非器而象器待之而成然则君子岂不为道之干邪乐必先奏而后节此先节后奏何也曰六经之道同归而礼乐之用为急礼胜则离而以进为文故曲礼以毋不敬为先乐胜则流而以反为文故作乐以节先乎奏节先乎奏与书先戛后击同意荀卿论礼亦谓节奏陵而文然以礼为节则是以之为奏则非矣
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乐书卷十九
URN: ctp:ws74968

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