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卷二百二十二

32
今南曲盛行於世無不人人自謂作者而不知其去元人逺也元以曲取士設十有二科而關漢卿軰争挾長技自見至躬踐排場靣傅粉墨以為我家生活偶倡優而不辭者或西晉竹林諸賢托杯酒自放之意予不敢知所論詩變而詞詞變而曲其源本出於一而變益下工益難何也詞本詩而亦取材於詩大都妙在奪胎而止矣曲本詞而不盡取材焉如六經語子史語二藏語稗官野乘語無所不供其採掇而要歸於斷章取義雅俗兼收串合無痕乃悅人耳此則情詞穏稱之難宇內貴賤妍●幽明離合之故奚啻千百其狀而填詞者必湏人習其方言事肖其本色境無旁溢語無外假此則關目𦂳凑之難北曲有十七宮調而南止九宮已少其半至於一曲中有突増幾十句者一句中有襯貼数十字者尢南所絶無而北多以此見才自非精審於字之陰陽韻之平仄鮮不劣調而況以吳儂強效傖父喉吻焉得不至河漢此則音律諧叶之難總之曲有名家有行家名家者出入樂府文彩爛然在淹通閎博之士皆優為之行家者隨所妝演無不摹擬曲盡宛若身當其處而幾㤀其事之烏有能使人快者掀髯憤者扼腕悲者掩泣羨者色飛是惟優孟衣冠然後可與於此故稱曲上乘首曰當行不然元何必以十二科限天下士而天下士亦何必各占一科以應之豈非兼才之難得而行家之不易工哉予嘗見王元美藝苑巵言之論曲有曰北曲字多而聲調緩其筋在弦南曲字少而聲調繁其力在板夫北之被弦索猶南之合簫管摧藏掩抑頗足動人而音亦嫋嫋與之俱流反使歌者不能自主是曲之别調非其正也若板以節曲則南北皆有力焉如謂北筋在弦亦謂南力在管可乎惜哉元羙之未知曲也由斯以評新安汪伯玉高唐洛川四南曲非不藻麗矣然純作綺語其失也靡山隂徐文長禰衡王通四北曲非不伉矣然雜出鄉語其失也鄙豫章湯義仍庻幾近之而識乏通方之見學罕協律之功所下句字徃徃乖謬其失也踈他雖窮極才情而靣目愈離按拍者既無繞梁遏雲之竒顧曲者復無輟味忘倦之好此乃元人所唾棄而俗人畜之者也予故選雜劇百種以盡元曲之妙且使今之為南者知有所取則云爾

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