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卷二百二十二

32
今南曲盛行于世无不人人自谓作者而不知其去元人逺也元以曲取士设十有二科而关汉卿軰争挟长技自见至躬践排场靣傅粉墨以为我家生活偶倡优而不辞者或西晋竹林诸贤托杯酒自放之意予不敢知所论诗变而词词变而曲其源本出于一而变益下工益难何也词本诗而亦取材于诗大都妙在夺胎而止矣曲本词而不尽取材焉如六经语子史语二藏语稗官野乘语无所不供其采掇而要归于断章取义雅俗兼收串合无痕乃悦人耳此则情词穏称之难宇内贵贱妍●幽明离合之故奚啻千百其状而填词者必湏人习其方言事肖其本色境无旁溢语无外假此则关目𦂳凑之难北曲有十七宫调而南止九宫已少其半至于一曲中有突増几十句者一句中有衬贴数十字者尢南所絶无而北多以此见才自非精审于字之阴阳韵之平仄鲜不劣调而况以吴侬强效伧父喉吻焉得不至河汉此则音律谐叶之难总之曲有名家有行家名家者出入乐府文彩烂然在淹通闳博之士皆优为之行家者随所妆演无不摹拟曲尽宛若身当其处而几㤀其事之乌有能使人快者掀髯愤者扼腕悲者掩泣羡者色飞是惟优孟衣冠然后可与于此故称曲上乘首曰当行不然元何必以十二科限天下士而天下士亦何必各占一科以应之岂非兼才之难得而行家之不易工哉予尝见王元美艺苑巵言之论曲有曰北曲字多而声调缓其筋在弦南曲字少而声调繁其力在板夫北之被弦索犹南之合箫管摧藏掩抑颇足动人而音亦袅袅与之俱流反使歌者不能自主是曲之别调非其正也若板以节曲则南北皆有力焉如谓北筋在弦亦谓南力在管可乎惜哉元羙之未知曲也由斯以评新安汪伯玉高唐洛川四南曲非不藻丽矣然纯作绮语其失也靡山隂徐文长祢衡王通四北曲非不伉矣然杂出乡语其失也鄙豫章汤义仍庻几近之而识乏通方之见学罕协律之功所下句字徃徃乖谬其失也踈他虽穷极才情而靣目愈离按拍者既无绕梁遏云之竒顾曲者复无辍味忘倦之好此乃元人所唾弃而俗人畜之者也予故选杂剧百种以尽元曲之妙且使今之为南者知有所取则云尔

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