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Scope: 蕉軒隨錄
Condition : References 「孔子
Total 9

卷八

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葛洪《西京雜記》曰:「茂陵郭威好讀書,以為《爾雅》周公所著,而《爾雅》有『張仲孝友』,張仲,宣王時人,非周公所制明矣。余嘗以問揚子云。子雲曰:『孔子門徒遊、夏之儔所記,以解釋六藝者也。』」家君以為《外戚傳》稱史佚教其子以《爾雅》,又記言孔子教魯哀公學《爾雅》,《爾雅》之出遠矣。世父蓮舫先生髫齡時,先大父授以《爾雅》,並引《西京雜記》告之。世父對曰:「昨讀『梁山,晉望也』,按成王封弟叔虞為唐侯,至子燮乃改國號曰晉。周公時安得有晉耶?」大父驚異,謂非常兒所能。
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閻百詩於康熙元年遊京師,依託合肥龔端毅公為之延譽,由是知名。其卒也,相傳世宗憲皇帝親製祭文并挽詩以賜,然恭閱世宗御集均不載。儀徵阮文達公撰《儒林傳稿》,稱其所著《孔廟從祀末議》十一事,乾隆十二年檢討山陽阮學浩上其議,部議未准。濬師恭讀高宗純皇帝諭旨曰:「翰林院檢討阮學浩所奏貢生閻若璩孔廟從祀末議》十一條,朕粗加披閱,大概多前人所已經議,及非有卓然至當不易之論有裨典制,必當見之施行者。即如議樂舞宜用八佾,籩豆宜用十二一條,其意謂尊崇祀典宜用天子禮樂,夫孔子道德高厚,與天地參,即備天子禮樂以奉之,亦未足以昭崇報。我朝列聖隆禮致敬於先師至矣,盡矣,而樂舞仍用六佾,非略而未講也。朕謂季氏八佾舞於庭,孔子斥其『是可忍也,孰不可忍』,今顧以孔子所非者祀孔子,是得為敬孔子乎?在他人則議之,在己則受之,於聖人之心安乎?謂孔子生未嘗為諸侯,六佾亦豈所固有,此乃本之宋臣王安石謂《史記》不當列孔子於世家,不過文人翻新立說,豈足據為定論。且天子尊師,所貴宣明德化,敦敘彞倫,實能行聖道以端治理,明聖教以淑人心,坐而言,起而行,使天下無一人不與被聖人之澤。至於樂舞之儀文,籩豆之度數,其末節耳。而以此為尊師首務,豈所謂能知輕重者乎?又所稱兩廡先賢、先儒位次凌躐,宜請厘正一條。兩廡從祀諸人,累朝互有出入,蓋書生習氣,喜呈臆斷而訾典章,就其一偏一曲之見,言人人殊,考之前史,甚至有迎合時事,黨護鄉曲者。漢臣議禮如聚訟之議,良有以也。阮學浩所信者,閻若璩之說。而閻若璩此條,如何釐正,若者宜先,若者宜後,在閻若璩即可定論?況孔廟祀典,於雍正二年奉皇考世宗憲皇帝諭旨,令廷臣集議,所有應增祀、復祀之先賢、先儒,已經一一厘正,閻若璩所謂西多於東者,蓋未釐正以前之舊。今定從祀東廡六十二人,西廡六十一人,位次秩然,初無凌躐,現載《大清會典》。閻若璩未及見,阮學浩何備官而亦未之聞耶?祀典關係重大,若只憑其私心淺見,率議更張,忽進忽退,忽東忽西,成何政體?以朕觀之,此二條即不可施行。是以明切曉諭,令眾知之。其餘各條,或有應議之處,大學士會同該部詳議具奏。欽此!」謹繹天語,足破儒生迂腐之見也。

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