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-> 尚書考異

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Author梅鷟
DynastyMing
Base text《欽定四庫全書》本
Data itemctext:294727
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尚書考異》五卷,明代梅鷟著,是《古文尚書》辨偽的重要著作。

梅鷟是明代正德癸酉舉人,曾任南京國子監助教。《古文尚書》之偽,從南宋吳棫朱熹,及元代吳澄等人已經有所懷疑,但皆僅是私議,並無具體證據。梅鷟著《尚書考異》是第一部全面性抉發梅賾《古文尚書》之偽的專書,例如梅氏從地理方面考証「孔傳」提到的地名是漢武帝以後才出現的名稱,如積石山在漢昭帝時才置金城郡,孔傳卻說積石山在金城西南;瀍水出穀城縣,到了晉朝才劃入河南,孔傳卻說其出自河南北山。但《尚書考異》考辨方式仍存在缺陷。程廷祚認為要考辨《古文尚書》之偽,重點應在於《古文尚書》是「來歷不明」。梅鷟雖然抉發《古文尚書》有大量蹈襲之跡,但無法認定梅賾就是抄襲得來,也無法證明劉向劉歆班固所稱之《古文尚書》就是真的「孔壁《古文尚書》」,要解決真偽問題,就必須知道究竟是誰抄襲誰。陳第曾作《尚書疏衍》駁斥梅鷟之說。閻若璩亦認為梅鷟對《尚書》証偽方式過於武斷。梅氏最早指出《古文尚書·大禹謨》中的「人心惟危,道心惟微,惟精惟一,允執厥中」前三句實際上抄自《荀子》,閰氏著《尚書古文疏証》時沿用這個說法,但未引出處,實有抄襲之嫌。

《尚書考異》在明代只有傳抄本,並未刻印。國立故宮博物院藏有《尚書考異》舊抄本兩冊,書後附一冊明韓邦奇《洪範圖解》。

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[Versions of this work (1)]
URN: ctp:wb801264

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