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Scope: 蘇軾集
Condition : References 「孔子
Total 2

卷五十三

1
元祐元年九月□日,翰林學士朝奉郎知制誥蘇軾狀奏。右臣聞之孔子曰:「天何言哉?四時行焉,百物生焉,天何言哉!」天子法天恭己,正南面,守法度,信賞罰而天下治,三代令王,莫不由此。若天下大事,安危所系,心之精微,法令有不能盡,則天子乃言,在三代為訓誥誓命,自漢以下為制詔,皆所以鼓舞天下,不輕用也。若每行事立法之外,必以王言隨而丁寧之,則是朝廷自輕其法,以為不丁寧則未必行也。言既屢出,雖複丁寧,人亦不信。今者十科之舉,乃朝廷政令之一耳,況已立法。或不如所舉,舉主從貢舉非其人律,犯正入己贓,舉主減三等坐之。若受賄徇私,罪名重者自從重,雖見為執政,亦降官示罰。臣謂立法不為不重,若以為未足,又從而降詔,則是詔不勝降矣。臣請略舉今年朝廷所行薦舉之法,凡有七事:舉轉運、提刑,一也;舉館職,二也;舉通判,三也;舉學官,四也;舉重法縣令,五也;舉經明行修,六也。與十科為七。七事輕重略等。若十科當降詔,則六事不可不降。今後一事一詔,則褻慢王言,莫甚於此。若但取諫官之意,或降或否,則其義安在?臣願戒敕執政,但守法度,信賞罰,重惜王言,以待大事而發,則天下聳然,敢不敬應。所有前件降詔,臣不敢撰。謹錄奏聞,伏候敕旨。
3
臣自聞命以來,一食三嘆,一夕九興,身口相謀,未知死所。然臣所撰《策問》,以實亦有罪,若不盡言,是欺陛下也。臣聞聖人之治天下也,寬猛相資,君臣之間,可否相濟。若上之所可,不問其是非,下亦可之,上之所否,不問其曲直,下亦否之,則是晏子所謂「以水濟水,誰能食之」,孔子所謂「惟予言而莫予違足以喪邦」者也。臣昔於仁宗朝舉制科,所進策論及所答聖問,大抵皆勸仁宗勵精庶政,督察百官,果斷而力行也。及事神宗,蒙召對訪問,退而上書數萬言,大抵皆勸神宗忠恕仁厚,含垢納污,屈己以裕人也。臣之區區,不自量度,常欲希慕古賢,可否相濟,蓋如此也。伏觀二聖臨御已來,聖政日新,一出忠厚,大率多行仁宗故事,天下翕然,銜戴恩德,固無可議者。然臣私憂過計,常恐百官有司矯枉過直,或至於偷,而神宗勵精核實之政,漸致惰壞,深慮數年之後,馭吏之法漸寬,理財之政漸疏,備邊之計漸弛,則意外之憂,有不可勝言者。雖陛下廣開言路,無所諱忌,而台諫所擊不過先朝之人,所非不過先朝之法,正是「以水濟水」,臣竊憂之。故輒用此意,撰上件《策問》,實以譏諷今之朝廷及宰相台諫之流,欲陛下覽之,有以感動聖意,庶幾兼行二帝忠厚勵精之政也。台諫若以此言臣,朝廷若以此罪臣,則斧鉞之誅,其甘如薺。今乃以為譏諷先朝,則亦疏而不近矣。

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