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-> -> -> Cultivating the Self

《修身卷第三 - Cultivating the Self》

English translation: Jeffrey S. Bullock [?] Library Resources
1 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
Cultivating oneself is the bow; rectifying one's thoughts is the arrow; establishing yi is the target. Being settled and then shooting, the shot will inevitably hit the bull's-eye.

2 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
Man's xing is a mixture of good and bad. If he cultivates its good aspects, then he becomes a good man. If he cultivates its bad aspects, then he becomes a bad man. As for qi, is it not the horse that one rides toward good or bad?

3 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
Someone said: Confucius's abilities were many. Since he was not employed, was he not distressed and worried.
Yangzi said: The sage takes pleasure in Tian and knows ming. Since he takes pleasure in Tian, he is not distressed. Since he knows ming, he is not worried.

4 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
Someone asked about inscriptions.
Yangzi said: Inscriptions! Inscriptions! They are intended to make people conscientious.

5 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
The sage's words can be practiced, but making people believe them cannot be done. Thus, the junzi assiduously studies and diligently puts them into practice.

6 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
To refine one's goods and then go to market;
To cultivate oneself and then make friends;
To perfect one's plans and then act—
[This is] the dao of success.

7 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
That which the junzi is cautious about are his speech, li, and writings.

8 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
If he does not flatter in interacting with superiors and does not boast in interacting with inferiors, then he can create friendships.
Someone said: The junzi keeps to himself; why must he interact with others?
Yangzi said: When Heaven and Earth interact, the myriad things are born; when men interact with the Dao, accomplishments of merit are completed. Why must he keep to himself?

9 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
If you love the great but do not employ it, then the great is not great. If you love the lofty but do not employ it, then the lofty is not lofty.

10 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
Looking up at Tian's Hall one knows the lowliness of the world's station.

11 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
Even with the perfection of Gong Yizi and Dong Zhongshu's talents, if they had not distinguished the good clearly, and if they had not used a steadfast mind, then how could they have so prevailed?

12 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
Someone asked about the function of ren, yi, li, wisdom, and trustworthiness.
Yangzi said: Ren is your dwelling; yi is the road; li is your clothing; wisdom is a candle; and trustworthiness is a tally. Live in the dwelling, walk the road, straighten your clothing, use the candle to light your way, and clasp the tally. The junzi is unmoved, but when he acts, he will succeed.

13 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
Have determination! Mengzi said: "Now, there have been those who were determined but did not reach the goal, but there has never been one who was not determined and yet did reach the goal."

14 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
Someone asked about governing oneself.
Yangzi said: Govern yourself by using Confucius as a model.
The other said: 'Govern yourself by using Confucius as a model.' But people like Confucius are rare!
Yangzi said: Use a good horse to lead other horses. Indeed, can this not be done?
The other said: If one plants too large a field, the weeds grow higher and higher. If one thinks of those far away, the heart grows more miserable.
Yangzi said: The sun shines, the moon is bright. If for three years you do not see the light of the sun, you will inevitably go blind. If for three years you do not see the light of the moon, your spirit will become obscured. Once the spirit is withered and vision has been destroyed, like a blind man using a walking stick to poke at the ground to find the road, you simply walk in darkness.

15 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
Someone asked: What must one do to be called a man?
Yangzi said: If one adopts the four serious qualities and leaves behind the four frivolous qualities, then he may be called a man.
Someone said: What does one call the four serious qualities?
Yangzi said: Taking words seriously, taking actions seriously, taking demeanor seriously, and taking one's interests seriously. If one's words are serious, then he has a model. If one's actions are serious, then he has de. If one's demeanor is serious, then he has majesty. If his interests are serious, then he has patience.
The other said: May I dare ask about the four frivolous qualities?
Yangzi said: If words are taken lightly, then one invites trouble. If behavior is taken lightly, then one invites faults. If demeanor is taken lightly, then one invites disgrace. If interests are taken lightly, then one invites excess.

16 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
The Li contains many rites.
Someone said: Waiting until evening and still not eating the meat, the meat inevitably dries out; waiting until evening and still not drinking the wine, the wine inevitably sours. The guest and host's hundred bows and three toasts of wine, are these not too extravagant?
Yangzi said: If there is substance without ornamentation, then it is unrefined. If there is ornamentation without substance, then it is like a business transaction. If ornamentation and substance are paired, then it is li.

17 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
When the mountain rooster is so plump, has he not obtained his ambition?
Someone said: But Yan Hui, having only one bowl of rice and one gourd of drink, was emaciated. What about that?
Yangzi said: When an enlightened ruler is at the top, government officials are treated to cattle and sheep, and so obtain their ambition, just like the mountain rooster. When a benighted ruler is on top, government officials get a bowl of rice and a gourd of drink, or pick wild vegetables, they also obtain their ambition, just like the mountain rooster. How can he be emaciated? The lightness of a thousand jun lies in Wu Huo's strength. The happiness of one bowl of food and one gourd of drink lies in Yan Hui's de.

18 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
Someone asked: What is the difference between the leather hide of a plow ox and that of a black or red ox?
Yangzi said: They are the same.
The other said: If so, then why not use the plow oxen for sacrifice?
Yangzi said: If you are going to express filial devotion to the spirits, then you do not dare use plow oxen. If you kill sheep and slaughter pigs to entertain guests and feast the army, then what difference does it make if you use plow oxen or not?

19 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
Those who had de delighted in asking the sage for instruction.
Someone said: The men who ruled in Lu rarely had de, how is it that they delighted in asking Confucius for instruction?
Yangzi said: In fact, none of those who ruled Lu were able to delight in asking Confucius for instruction! Had they delighted in asking Confucius for instruction, then Lu would have become a Zhou in the East.

20 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
Someone asked: If someone had leaned on Confucius's wall, strummed the music of Zheng and Wei, or recited the books of Han Feizi and Zhuang Zhou, then would he have invited them to enter his gate?
Yangzi said: If they were barbarians of the Yi or the Mo, then he would have invited them in. If they were his neighbors, then he would have run them off. What a pity, when people turn to making the robe before the tunic is complete.

21 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
The sage's ear does not follow what is false, nor does his mouth work at sounding good. The worthy man's ears and mouth must still choose what he listens to and says; the common man has no selectivity about these things.
Someone asked: What does the common man pursue?
Yangzi said: Wealth, honor, long life.
The other said: The worthy man?
Yangzi said: Yi.
The other said: The sage?
Yangzi said: Shen (神).
If one observes the worthy, one understands the common man. If one observes the sage, one understands the worthy. If one observes Heaven and Earth, then he understands the sage.
All under Heaven have three loves: The average man loves to fulfill his own desires; the worthy man loves to correct himself; the sage loves to be his own teacher.
All under Heaven have three ways to examine themselves: The average man uses the circumstances of his family to examine himself; the worthy man uses the circumstances of the state to examine himself; the sage uses the situation of all under Heaven to examine himself.
The world has three doors: Coming from natural desires, one enters from the animal door. Coming from li and yi, one enters from the human door. Coming from spiritual wisdom, one enters from the sage's door.

22 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
Someone asked: What must a shi do to satisfy himself?
Yangzi said: If inwardly he makes himself broad and deep, and outwardly makes himself strict and restrained, then he can be satisfied.

23 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
The junzi is so extremely cautious about his de that regrets and distress do not arise. How can he commit a major offense?

24 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
The superior shi's ears are attuned to de; common shi's ears are attuned to themselves.

25 修身卷第... :
Cultivating the Self:...:
Those whose words were shameful, and whose actions were disgraceful—Confucius avoided them.

URN: ctp:yangzi-fayan/juan-san