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Chinese Text Project
Show translation:[None] [Modern Chinese] [English]

《陽貨 - Yang Huo》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《陽貨》 Library Resources
1 陽貨:
陽貨欲見孔子,孔子不見,歸孔子豚。孔子時其亡也,而往拜之,遇諸塗。謂孔子曰:「來!予與爾言。」曰:「懷其寶而迷其邦,可謂仁乎?」曰:「不可。」「好從事而亟失時,可謂知乎?」曰:「不可。」「日月逝矣,歲不我與。」孔子曰:「諾。吾將仕矣。」
Yang Huo:
Yang Huo wished to see Confucius, but Confucius would not go to see him. On this, he sent a present of a pig to Confucius, who, having chosen a time when Huo was not at home, went to pay his respects for the gift. He met him, however, on the way. Huo said to Confucius, "Come, let me speak with you." He then asked, "Can he be called benevolent who keeps his jewel in his bosom, and leaves his country to confusion?" Confucius replied, "No." "Can he be called wise, who is anxious to be engaged in public employment, and yet is constantly losing the opportunity of being so?" Confucius again said, "No." "The days and months are passing away; the years do not wait for us." Confucius said, "Right; I will go into office."

2 陽貨:
子曰:「性相近也,習相遠也。」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "By nature, men are nearly alike; by practice, they get to be wide apart."

3 陽貨:
子曰:「唯上知與下愚不移。」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "There are only the wise of the highest class, and the stupid of the lowest class, who cannot be changed."

4 陽貨:
子之武城,聞弦歌之聲。夫子莞爾而笑,曰:「割雞焉用牛刀?」子游對曰:「昔者偃也聞諸夫子曰:『君子學道則愛人,小人學道則易使也。』」子曰:「二三子!偃之言是也。前言戲之耳。」
Yang Huo:
The Master, having come to Wu Cheng, heard there the sound of stringed instruments and singing. Well pleased and smiling, he said, "Why use an ox knife to kill a fowl?" Zi You replied, "Formerly, Master, I heard you say, 'When the man of high station is well instructed, he loves men; when the man of low station is well instructed, he is easily ruled.'" The Master said, "My disciples, Yan's words are right. What I said was only in sport."

5 陽貨:
公山弗擾以費畔,召,子欲往。子路不說,曰:「末之也已,何必公山氏之之也。」子曰:「夫召我者而豈徒哉?如有用我者,吾其為東周乎?」
Yang Huo:
Gong Shan Fo Rao, when he was holding Fei, and in an attitude of rebellion, invited the Master to visit him, who was rather inclined to go. Zi Lu was displeased, and said, "Indeed, you cannot go! Why must you think of going to see Gong Shan?" The Master said, "Can it be without some reason that he has invited me? If any one employ me, may I not make an eastern Zhou?"

6 陽貨:
子張問仁於孔子。孔子曰:「能行五者於天下,為仁矣。」請問之。曰:「恭、寬、信、敏、惠。恭則不侮,寬則得眾,信則人任焉,敏則有功,惠則足以使人。」
Yang Huo:
Zi Zhang asked Confucius about perfect virtue. Confucius said, "To be able to practice five things everywhere under heaven constitutes perfect virtue." He begged to ask what they were, and was told, "Gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness. If you are grave, you will not be treated with disrespect. If you are generous, you will win all. If you are sincere, people will repose trust in you. If you are earnest, you will accomplish much. If you are kind, this will enable you to employ the services of others."

7 陽貨:
佛肸召,子欲往。子路曰:「昔者由也聞諸夫子曰:『親於其身為不善者,君子不入也。』佛肸以中牟畔,子之往也,如之何!」子曰:「然。有是言也。不曰堅乎,磨而不磷;不曰白乎,涅而不緇。吾豈匏瓜也哉?焉能繫而不食?」
Yang Huo:
Fo Xi inviting him to visit him, the Master was inclined to go. Zi Lu said, "Master, formerly I have heard you say, 'When a man in his own person is guilty of doing evil, a superior man will not associate with him.' Fo Xi is in rebellion, holding possession of Zhong Mou; if you go to him, what shall be said?" The Master said, "Yes, I did use these words. But is it not said, that, if a thing be really hard, it may be ground without being made thin? Is it not said, that, if a thing be really white, it may be steeped in a dark fluid without being made black? Am I a bitter gourd? How can I be hung up out of the way of being eaten?"

8 陽貨:
子曰:「由也,女聞六言六蔽矣乎?」對曰:「未也。」「居!吾語女。好仁不好學,其蔽也愚;好知不好學,其蔽也蕩;好信不好學,其蔽也賊;好直不好學,其蔽也絞;好勇不好學,其蔽也亂;好剛不好學,其蔽也狂。」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "You, have you heard the six words to which are attached six becloudings?" You replied, "I have not." "Sit down, and I will tell them to you. There is the love of being benevolent without the love of learning - the beclouding here leads to a foolish simplicity. There is the love of knowing without the love of learning - the beclouding here leads to dissipation of mind. There is the love of being sincere without the love of learning - the beclouding here leads to an injurious disregard of consequences. There is the love of straightforwardness without the love of learning - the beclouding here leads to rudeness. There is the love of boldness without the love of learning - the beclouding here leads to insubordination. There is the love of firmness without the love of learning - the beclouding here leads to extravagant conduct."

9 陽貨:
子曰:「小子!何莫學夫詩?詩,可以興,可以觀,可以群,可以怨。邇之事父,遠之事君。多識於鳥獸草木之名。」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "My children, why do you not study the Book of Poetry? The Odes serve to stimulate the mind. They may be used for purposes of self-contemplation. They teach the art of sociability. They show how to regulate feelings of resentment. From them you learn the more immediate duty of serving one's father, and the remoter one of serving one's prince. From them we become largely acquainted with the names of birds, beasts, and plants."

10 陽貨:
子謂伯魚曰:「女為《周南》、《召南》矣乎?人而不為《周南》、《召南》,其猶正牆面而立也與?」
Yang Huo:
The Master said to Bo Yu, "Do you give yourself to the Zhou Nan and the Shao Nan. The man who has not studied the Zhou Nan and the Shao Nan is like one who stands with his face right against a wall. Is he not so?"

11 陽貨:
子曰:「禮云禮云,玉帛云乎哉?樂云樂云,鐘鼓云乎哉?」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "'It is according to the rules of propriety,' they say. 'It is according to the rules of propriety,' they say. Are gems and silk all that is meant by propriety? 'It is music,' they say. 'It is music,' they say. Are bells and drums all that is meant by music?"

12 陽貨:
子曰:「色厲而內荏,譬諸小人,其猶穿窬之盜也與?」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "He who puts on an appearance of stern firmness, while inwardly he is weak, is like one of the small, mean people - yea, is he not like the thief who breaks through, or climbs over, a wall?"

13 陽貨:
子曰:「鄉原,德之賊也。」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "Your good, careful people of the villages are the thieves of virtue."

14 陽貨:
子曰:「道聽而塗說,德之棄也。」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "To tell, as we go along, what we have heard on the way, is to cast away our virtue."

15 陽貨:
子曰:「鄙夫!可與事君也與哉?其未得之也,患得之;既得之,患失之。苟患失之,無所不至矣。」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "There are those mean creatures! How impossible it is along with them to serve one's prince! While they have not got their aims, their anxiety is how to get them. When they have got them, their anxiety is lest they should lose them. When they are anxious lest such things should be lost, there is nothing to which they will not proceed."

16 陽貨:
子曰:「古者民有三疾,今也或是之亡也。古之狂也肆,今之狂也蕩;古之矜也廉,今之矜也忿戾;古之愚也直,今之愚也詐而已矣。」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "Anciently, men had three failings, which now perhaps are not to be found. The high-mindedness of antiquity showed itself in a disregard of small things; the high-mindedness of the present day shows itself in wild license. The stern dignity of antiquity showed itself in grave reserve; the stern dignity of the present day shows itself in quarrelsome perverseness. The stupidity of antiquity showed itself in straightforwardness; the stupidity of the present day shows itself in sheer deceit."

17 陽貨:
子曰:「巧言令色,鮮矣仁。」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with virtue."

18 陽貨:
子曰:「惡紫之奪朱也,惡鄭聲之亂雅樂也,惡利口之覆邦家者。」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "I hate the manner in which purple takes away the luster of vermilion. I hate the way in which the songs of Zheng confound the music of the Ya. I hate those who with their sharp mouths overthrow kingdoms and families."

19 陽貨:
子曰:「予欲無言。」子貢曰:「子如不言,則小子何述焉?」子曰:「天何言哉?四時行焉,百物生焉,天何言哉?」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "I would prefer not speaking." Zi Gong said, "If you, Master, do not speak, what shall we, your disciples, have to record?" The Master said, "Does Heaven speak? The four seasons pursue their courses, and all things are continually being produced, but does Heaven say anything?"

20 陽貨:
孺悲欲見孔子,孔子辭以疾。將命者出戶,取瑟而歌。使之聞之。
Yang Huo:
Ru Bei wished to see Confucius, but Confucius declined, on the ground of being sick, to see him. When the bearer of this message went out at the door, (the Master) took his lute and sang to it, in order that Bei might hear him.

21 陽貨:
宰我問:「三年之喪,期已久矣。君子三年不為禮,禮必壞;三年不為樂,樂必崩。舊穀既沒,新穀既升,鑽燧改火,期可已矣。」子曰:「食夫稻,衣夫錦,於女安乎?」曰:「安。」「女安則為之!夫君子之居喪,食旨不甘,聞樂不樂,居處不安,故不為也。今女安,則為之!」宰我出。子曰:「予之不仁也!子生三年,然後免於父母之懷。夫三年之喪,天下之通喪也。予也,有三年之愛於其父母乎?」
Yang Huo:
Zai Wo asked about the three years' mourning for parents, saying that one year was long enough. "If the superior man abstains for three years from the observances of propriety, those observances will be quite lost. If for three years he abstains from music, music will be ruined. Within a year the old grain is exhausted, and the new grain has sprung up, and, in procuring fire by friction, we go through all the changes of wood for that purpose. After a complete year, the mourning may stop." The Master said, "If you were, after a year, to eat good rice, and wear embroidered clothes, would you feel at ease?" "I should," replied Wo. The Master said, "If you can feel at ease, do it. But a superior man, during the whole period of mourning, does not enjoy pleasant food which he may eat, nor derive pleasure from music which he may hear. He also does not feel at ease, if he is comfortably lodged. Therefore he does not do what you propose. But now you feel at ease and may do it." Zai Wo then went out, and the Master said, "This shows Yu's want of virtue. It is not till a child is three years old that it is allowed to leave the arms of its parents. And the three years' mourning is universally observed throughout the empire. Did Yu enjoy the three years' love of his parents?"

22 陽貨:
子曰:「飽食終日,無所用心,難矣哉!不有博弈者乎,為之猶賢乎已。」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "Hard is it to deal with who will stuff himself with food the whole day, without applying his mind to anything good! Are there not gamesters and chess players? To be one of these would still be better than doing nothing at all."

23 陽貨:
子路曰:「君子尚勇乎?」子曰:「君子義以為上。君子有勇而無義為亂,小人有勇而無義為盜。」
Yang Huo:
Zi Lu said, "Does the superior man esteem valor?" The Master said, "The superior man holds righteousness to be of highest importance. A man in a superior situation, having valor without righteousness, will be guilty of insubordination; one of the lower people having valor without righteousness, will commit robbery."

24 陽貨:
子貢曰:「君子亦有惡乎?」子曰:「有惡:惡稱人之惡者,惡居下流而訕上者,惡勇而無禮者,惡果敢而窒者。」曰:「賜也亦有惡乎?」「惡徼以為知者,惡不孫以為勇者,惡訐以為直者。」
Yang Huo:
Zi Gong said, "Has the superior man his hatreds also?" The Master said, "He has his hatreds. He hates those who proclaim the evil of others. He hates the man who, being in a low station, slanders his superiors. He hates those who have valor merely, and are unobservant of propriety. He hates those who are forward and determined, and, at the same time, of contracted understanding." The Master then inquired, "Ci, have you also your hatreds?" Zi Gong replied, "I hate those who pry out matters, and ascribe the knowledge to their wisdom. I hate those who are only not modest, and think that they are valorous. I hate those who make known secrets, and think that they are straightforward."

25 陽貨:
子曰:「唯女子與小人為難養也,近之則不孫,遠之則怨。」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "Of all people, girls and servants are the most difficult to behave to. If you are familiar with them, they lose their humility. If you maintain a reserve towards them, they are discontented."

26 陽貨:
子曰:「年四十而見惡焉,其終也已。」
Yang Huo:
The Master said, "When a man at forty is the object of dislike, he will always continue what he is."

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