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-> -> -> -> Anti-Fatalism I

《非命上 - Anti-Fatalism I》

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 非命上:
子墨子言曰:「古者王公大人,為政國家者,皆欲國家之富,人民之眾,刑政之治。然而不得富而得貧,不得眾而得寡,不得治而得亂,則是本失其所欲,得其所惡,是故何也?」子墨子言曰:「執有命者以集於民閒者眾。執有命者之言曰:『命富則富,命貧則貧;命眾則眾,命寡則寡;命治則治,命亂則亂;命壽則壽,命夭則夭;命雖強勁,何益哉?』以上說王公大人,下以駔百姓之從事,故執有命者不仁。故當執有命者之言,不可不明辨。」
Anti-Fatalism I:
Mozi said: At present, in governing the states the rulers all desire to have their countries wealthy, their population large, and their administration orderly. But instead of wealth they obtain poverty, instead of an increase they obtain a decrease in population, instead of order they obtain chaos; i.e. they lose what they like but obtain what they dislike. What is the reason for this? Mozi said: It is due to the large number of fatalists among the people. The fatalists say: "When fate decrees that a man shall be wealthy he will be wealthy; when it decrees poverty, he will be poor; when it decrees a large population, this will be large; and when it decrees a small population this will be small; if order is decreed, there will be order; if chaos, there will be chaos. If fate decrees old age, there will be old age; if untimely death, there will be untimely death. Even if a man sets himself against his fate, what is the use?" With this doctrine the rulers are urged above and the people are kept away from their work below. Hence the fatalists are unmagnanimous. And their doctrines must be clearly examined.

2 非命上:
然則明辨此之說將柰何哉?子墨子言曰:「必立儀,言而毋儀,譬猶運鈞之上而立朝夕者也,是非利害之辨,不可得而明知也。故言必有三表。」何謂三表?子墨子言曰:「有本之者,有原之者,有用之者。於何本之?上本之於古者聖王之事。於何原之?下原察百姓耳目之實。於何用之?廢以為刑政,觀其中國家百姓人民之利。此所謂言有三表也。
Anti-Fatalism I:
Now, how is this doctrine to be examined? Mozi said: Some standard of judgment must be established. To expound a doctrine without regard to the standard is similar to determining the directions of sunrise and sunset on a revolving potter's wheel. By this means the distinction of right and wrong, benefit and harm, cannot be known. Therefore there must be three tests. What are the three tests? Mozi said: Its basis, its verifiability, and its applicability. How is it to be based? It should be based on the deeds of the ancient sage-kings. How is it to be verified? It is to be verified by the senses of hearing and sight of the common people. How is it to be applied? It is to be applied by adopting it in government and observing its benefits to the country and the people. This is what is meant by the three tests of every doctrine.

3 非命上:
然而今天下之士君子,或以命為有。蓋嘗尚觀於聖王之事,古者桀之所亂,湯受而治之;紂之所亂,武王受而治之。此世未易民未渝,在於桀紂,則天下亂;在於湯武,則天下治,豈可謂有命哉!
Anti-Fatalism I:
Some of the gentlemen of the world assume there to be fate. Now let us examine the deeds of the sage-kings. In ancient times, the confusion produced by Jie was replaced by an orderly government by Tang, the chaos of Zhou was turned into order by King Wu. The times did not alter and the people did not change, yet under Jie and Zhou the world was chaotic and under Tang and Wu it was orderly. Can it be said that there is fate?

4 非命上:
然而今天下之士君子,或以命為有。蓋嘗尚觀於先王之書,先王之書,所
1出國家,布施百姓
2,憲也。先王之憲,亦嘗有曰『福不可請,而禍不可諱,敬無益,暴無傷』者乎?所以聽獄制罪者,刑也。先王之刑亦嘗有曰『福不可請,禍不可諱,敬無益,暴無傷』者乎?所以整設師旅,進退師徒者,誓也。先王之誓亦嘗有曰:『福不可請,禍不可諱,敬無益,暴無傷』者乎?」是故子墨子言曰:「吾當未鹽數,天下之良書不可盡計數,大方論數,而五者是也。今雖毋求執有命者之言,不必得,不亦可錯乎?今用執有命者之言,是覆天下之義,覆天下之義者,是立命者也,百姓之誶也。說百姓之誶者,是滅天下之人也」。然則所為欲義在上者,何也?曰:「義人在上,天下必治,上帝山川鬼神,必有幹主,萬民被其大利。」何以知之?子墨子曰:「古者湯封於亳,絕長繼短,方地百里,與其百姓兼相愛,交相利,移則分。率其百姓,以上尊天事鬼,是以天鬼富之,諸侯與之,百姓親之,賢士歸之,未歿其世,而王天下,政諸侯。昔者文王封於岐周,「絕長繼短,方地百里,與其百姓兼相愛、交相利,則,是以近者安其政,遠者歸其德。聞文王者,皆起而趨之。罷不肖股肱不利者,處而願之曰:『柰何乎使文王之地及我,吾則吾利,豈不亦猶文王之民也哉。』是以天鬼富之,諸侯與之,百姓親之,賢士歸之,未歿其世,而王天下,政諸侯。鄉者言曰:義人在上,天下必治,上帝山川鬼神,必有幹主,萬民被其大利。吾用此知之。
Anti-Fatalism I:
But the gentlemen of the world still assume that there is fate. Now let us look at some of the writings of the early kings. The writings of the early kings that were issued to the whole country and distributed among the people were the laws. Did any of the laws of the early kings ever say: "Blessing cannot be invoked and disaster cannot be avoided; reverence will not do any good and cruelty will not do any harm"? The standards according to which lawsuits were tried and punishments were meted out were the codes of punishment. Did any of the codes of punishment of the early kings say: "Blessing cannot be invoked and disaster cannot be avoided; reverence will not do any good and cruelty will not do any harm"? The inspiration by which the armies were organized and the soldiers were commanded to advance or to retreat came from the declarations. Did any of the declarations of the early kings say: "Blessing cannot be invoked and disaster cannot be avoided; reverence will do no good and cruelty will do no harm"? Mozi said: I have not enumerated the good books of the empire completely. As they cannot be exhaustively enumerated, I limit myself to the most prominent ones, namely, the three above mentioned. And try as we may, we cannot find any belief in the doctrine of fatalism. Should it not then be abandoned? To adopt the fatalists' doctrine is to overthrow righteousness in the world. To overthrow righteousness in the world will establish fate, which is a temptation to the people. And to offer people temptation is to destroy the people. Now, why is it that we desire righteousness to be with the superiors? Because when the righteous are in authority, the world will have order, God, hills and rivers, and the spirits will have their chief sacrificer, and the people will be visited by the great blessings therefrom. How do we know? Mozi said: In ancient times, Tang was given a fief at Bo. Taking allowance for the irregular boundary lines, his land amounted to about a hundred li square. He worked with the people for mutual love and reciprocal benefit, and shared with them what was in abundance. And he led his people to reverence Heaven and worship the spirits. Thereupon, Heaven and the spirits enriched him, the feudal lords befriended him, the people loved him, and the virtuous came to him. Within a single generation he ruled over the empire and headed the feudal lords. Again in ancient times, King Wen was assigned to the state of Qi Zhou. Making allowance for the irregular boundary lines, his land amounted to about a hundred li square. He worked with his people for mutual love and reciprocal benefit. So those near him enjoyed his government and those distant submitted themselves to his virtues. All who heard of King Wen rose up and rushed over to him. The stupid and insolent and those weak in limbs remained where they were and complained: "Why not let the land of King Wen extend to this place. Wouldn't I then also be a subject of King Wen?" Thereupon Heaven and the spirits enriched him, the feudal lords befriended him, the people loved him and the virtuous came to him. Within a single generation he ruled over the whole empire and headed the feudal lords. As we have said: When the righteous are in authority the world will have order, God, hills and rivers, and the spirits will have their chief sacrificer, and the people will be visited by the great benefits therefrom. And this is how we know it to be so.

1. 以 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 者 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

5 非命上:
是故古之聖王發憲出令,設以為賞罰以勸賢,是以入則孝慈於親戚,出則弟長於鄉里,坐處有度,出入有節,男女有辨。是故使治官府,則不盜竊,守城則不崩叛,君有難則死,出亡則送。此上之所賞,而百姓之所譽也。執有命者之言曰:『上之所賞,命固且賞,非賢故賞也。上之所罰,命固且罰,不暴故罰也。』是故入則不慈孝於親戚,出則不弟長於鄉里,坐處不度,出入無節,男女無辨。是故治官府則盜竊,守城則崩叛,君有難則不死,出亡則不送。此上之所罰,百姓之所非毀也。執有命者言曰:『上之所罰,命固且罰,不暴故罰也。上之所賞,命固且賞,非賢故賞也。』以此為君則不義,為臣則不忠,為父則不慈,為子則不孝,為兄則不良,為弟則不弟,而強執此者,此特凶言之所自生,而暴人之道也1
Anti-Fatalism I:
The ancient sage-kings published laws and issued orders to be standards of reward and punishment, and to encourage the virtuous and to obstruct the evil. And so the people were filial to their parents at home and respectful to the elders in the village or the district. They observed propriety in conduct, moderation in going out and coming in, and decency between men and women. And when they were made to look after the court they would not steal, when they were made to defend a city they would not raise an insurrection. When the lord met with death they would commit suicide, and when the lord was banished they would follow him. This is what the superior will reward and what the people will applaud. Now, the fatalists say: "Whoever is rewarded by the superior is destined to be rewarded. It is not because of his virtue that he is rewarded. Whoever is punished by the superior is destined to be punished. It is not because of his vice that he is punished." Under these conditions the people would not be filial to their parents at home, and respectful to the elders in the village or the district. They would not observe propriety in conduct, moderation in going out and coming in, or decency between men and women. And, if they were made to look after the court they would steal, if they were made to defend a city they would raise an insurrection. If the lord met with death they would not commit suicide, and if the lord were banished they would not accompany him. This is what the superior will punish, and what the people will condemn. The fatalists say: "Whoever is punished by the superior is destined to be punished. It is not because of his vice that he is punished." Believing in this, the ruler would not be righteous, the minister would not be loyal, the father would not be affectionate, the son would not be filial, the elder brother would not be brotherly, and the younger brother would not be respectful. The unnatural adherence to this doctrine is responsible for pernicious ideas and is the way of the wicked.

1. 也 : Originally read: "昔". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

6 非命上:
然則何以知命之為暴人之道?昔上世之窮民,貪於飲食,惰於從事,是以衣
1之財不足,而飢寒凍餒之憂至,不知曰『我罷不肖,從事不疾』,必曰『我命固且貧』。昔上世暴王不忍其耳目之淫,心涂之辟,不順其親戚,遂以亡失國家,傾覆社稷,不知曰『我罷不肖,為政不善』,必曰『吾命固失之。』於仲虺之告曰:『我聞于夏人,矯天命布命于下,帝伐之惡,龔喪厥師。』此言湯之所以非桀之執有命也。於太誓曰:『紂夷處,不用事上帝鬼神,禍厥先神禔不祀,乃曰吾民有命,無廖排漏,天亦縱棄之而弗葆。』此言武王所以非紂執有命也。今用執有命者之言,則上不聽治,下不從事。上不聽治,則刑政亂;下不從事,則財用不足,上無以供粢盛酒醴,祭祀上帝鬼神,
下無以
2降綏天下賢可之士,外無以應待諸侯之賓客,內無以食飢衣寒,將養老弱。故命上不利於天,中不利於鬼,下不利於人,而強執此者,此特凶言之所自生,而暴人之道也。」
Anti-Fatalism I:
Now how do we know fatalism is the way of the wicked? In ancient times, the miserable people indulged in drinking and eating and were lazy in their work. Thereupon their food and clothing became insufficient, and the danger of hunger and cold was approaching. They did not acknowledge: "I was stupid and insolent and was not diligent at work." But they would say: "It is but my lot to be poor." The ancient wicked kings did not control the sensuality of their ears and eyes and the passions of their mind. They did not follow their ancestors and so they lost their country and ruined their state. They did not know that they should confess: "I am stupid and insolent and was not diligent in attending to government." But they would say: "It is but my fate to lose it." The "Announcement of Zhong Hui" says: "I have heard that the man of Xia issued orders, pretending them to be fate of Heaven. God was displeased and destroyed his forces." This tells how Tang showed Jie's belief in fate to be wrong. "The Great Declaration" says: "Zhou became insolent and would not worship God and pushed away the ancestors and spirits without offering them sacrifices. And he said: 'Fortune is with my people,' and neglected and betrayed his duty. Heaven thereupon deserted him and withdrew its protection." This tells how King Wu showed Zhou's belief in fate to be wrong. If the doctrine of the fatalist were put to practice, the superiors would not attend to government and the subordinates would not attend to work. If the superior does not attend to government, jurisdiction and administration will be in chaos. If the subordinates do not attend to work, wealth will not be sufficient. Then, there will not be wherewith to provide for the cakes and wine to worship and do sacrifice to God, ghosts and spirits above, and there will not be wherewith to tranquillize the virtuous of the world below; there will not be wherewith to entertain the noble guests from without, and there will not be wherewith to feed the hungry, clothe the cold, and care for the aged and weak within. Therefore fatalism is not helpful to Heaven above, nor to the spirits in the middle sphere, nor to man below. The eccentric belief in this doctrine is responsible for pernicious ideas and is the way of the wicked.

1. 食 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 下無以 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

7 非命上:
是故子墨子言曰:「今天下之士君子,忠實欲天下之富而惡其貧,欲天下之治而惡其亂,執有命者之言,不可不非,此天下之大害也。」
Anti-Fatalism I:
Therefore Mozi said: If the gentlemen in the world really desire to have the world rich and do not want to have it poor, desire to have it orderly and dislike to have it in confusion, the doctrine of fatalism must be rejected. It is a great calamity to the world.

URN: ctp:mozi/anti-fatalism-i