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-> -> -> -> Letting Be, and Exercising Forbearance

《在宥 - Letting Be, and Exercising Forbearance》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《在宥》 Library Resources
1 在宥:
聞在宥天下,不聞治天下也。在之也者,恐天下之淫其性也;宥之也者,恐天下之遷其德也。天下不淫其性,不遷其德,有治天下者哉!昔堯之治天下也,使天下欣欣焉人樂其性,是不恬也;桀之治天下也,使天下瘁瘁焉人苦其性,是不愉也。夫不恬不愉,非德也。非德也而可長久者,天下無之。人大喜邪,毗於陽。大怒邪,毗於陰。陰陽並毗,四時不至,寒暑之和不成,其反傷人之形乎!使人喜怒失位,居處無常,思慮不自得,中道不成章,於是乎天下始喬詰、卓鷙,而後有盜跖、曾、史之行。故舉天下以賞其善者不足,舉天下以罰其惡者不給,故天下之大不足以賞罰。自三代以下者,匈匈焉終以賞罰為事,彼何暇安其性命之情哉!而且說明邪,是淫於色也;說聰邪,是淫於聲也;說仁邪,是亂於德也;說義邪,是悖於理也;說禮邪,是相於技也;說樂邪,是相於淫也;說聖邪,是相於藝也;說知邪,是相於疵也。天下將安其性命之情,之八者,存可也;亡可也;天下將不安其性命之情,之八者,乃始臠卷、獊囊而亂天下也。而天下乃始尊之惜之,甚矣天下之惑也!豈直過也而去之邪!乃齊戒以言之,跪坐以進之,鼓歌以儛之,吾若是何哉!故君子不得已而臨邪天下,莫若無為。無為也,而後安其性命之情。故貴以身於為天下,則可以託天下;愛以身於為天下,則可以寄天下。故君子苟能無解其五藏,無擢其聰明,尸居而龍見,淵默而雷聲,神動而天隨,從容無為而萬物炊累焉。吾又何暇治天下哉!
Letting Be, and Exercising...:
I have heard of letting the world be, and exercising forbearance; I have not heard of governing the world. Letting be is from the fear that men, (when interfered with), will carry their nature beyond its normal condition; exercising forbearance is from the fear that men, (when not so dealt with), will alter the characteristics of their nature. When all men do not carry their nature beyond its normal condition, nor alter its characteristics, the good government of the world is secured. Formerly, Yao's government of the world made men look joyful; but when they have this joy in their nature, there is a want of its (proper) placidity. The government of the world by Jie, (on the contrary), made men look distressed; but when their nature shows the symptoms of distress, there is a want of its (proper) contentment. The want of placidity and the want of contentment are contrary to the character (of the nature); and where this obtains, it is impossible that any man or state should anywhere abide long. Are men exceedingly joyful? The Yang or element of expansion in them is too much developed. Are they exceedingly irritated? The Yin or opposite element is too much developed. When those elements thus predominate in men, (it is as if) the four seasons were not to come (at their proper times), and the harmony of cold and heat were not to be maintained - would there not result injury to the bodies of men? Men's joy and dissatisfaction are made to arise where they ought not to do so; their movements are all uncertain; they lose the mastery of their thoughts; they stop short midway, and do not finish what they have begun. In this state of things the world begins to have lofty aims, and jealous dislikes, ambitious courses, and fierce animosities, and then we have actions like those of the robber Zhi, or of Zeng (Shen) and Shi (Qiu). If now the whole world were taken to reward the good it would not suffice, nor would it be possible with it to punish the bad. Thus the world, great as it is, not sufficing for rewards and punishments, from the time of the three dynasties downwards, there has been nothing but bustle and excitement. Always occupied with rewards and punishments, what leisure have men had to rest in the instincts of the nature with which they are endowed? Moreover, delight in the power of vision leads to excess in the pursuit of (ornamental) colours; delight in the power of hearing, to excess in seeking (the pleasures of) sound; delight in benevolence tends to disorder that virtue (as proper to the nature); delight in righteousness sets the man in opposition to what is right in reason; delight in (the practice of) ceremonies is helpful to artful forms; delight in music leads to voluptuous airs; delight in sageness is helpful to ingenious contrivances; delight in knowledge contributes to fault-finding. If all men were to rest in the instincts of their nature, to keep or to extinguish these eight delights might be a matter of indifference; but if they will not rest in those instincts, then those eight delights begin to be imperfectly and unevenly developed or violently suppressed, and the world is thrown into disorder. But when men begin to honour them, and to long for them, how great is the deception practised on the world! And not only, when (a performance of them) is once over, do they not have done with them, but they prepare themselves (as) with fasting to describe them, they seem to kneel reverentially when they bring them forward, and they go through them with the excitements of music and singing; and then what can be done (to remedy the evil of them)? Therefore the superior man, who feels himself constrained to engage in the administration of the world will find it his best way to do nothing. In (that policy of) doing nothing, he can rest in the instincts of the nature with which he is endowed. Hence he who will administer (the government of) the world honouring it as he honours his own person, may have that government committed to him, and he who will administer it loving it as he loves his own person, may have it entrusted to him. Therefore, if the superior man will keep (the faculties lodged in) his five viscera unemployed, and not display his powers of seeing and hearing, while he is motionless as a representative of the dead, his dragon-like presence will be seen; while he is profoundly silent, the thunder (of his words) will resound; while his movements are (unseen) like those of a spirit, all heavenly influences will follow them; while he is (thus) unconcerned and does nothing, his genial influence will attract and gather all things round him: what leisure has he to do anything more for the government of the world?

2 在宥:
崔瞿問於老聃曰:「不治天下,安藏人心?」老聃曰:「汝慎無攖人心。人心排下而進上,上下囚殺,淖約柔乎剛強。廉劌彫琢,其熱焦火,其寒凝冰。其疾俛仰之間,而再撫四海之外,其居也淵而靜,其動也縣而天。僨驕而不可係者,其唯人心乎!昔者黃帝始以仁義攖人之心,堯、舜於是乎股無胈,脛無毛,以養天下之形,愁其五藏以為仁義,矜其血氣以規法度。然猶有不勝也。堯於是放讙兜於崇山,投三苗於三峗,流共工於幽都,此不勝天下也夫!施及三王而天下大駭矣。下有桀、跖,上有曾、史,而儒、墨畢起。於是乎喜怒相疑,愚知相欺,善否相非,誕信相譏,而天下衰矣;大德不同,而性命爛漫矣;天下好知,而百姓求竭矣。於是乎釿鋸制焉,繩墨殺焉,椎鑿決焉。天下脊脊大亂,罪在攖人心。故賢者伏處大山嵁巖之下,而萬乘之君憂慄乎廟堂之上。今世殊死者相枕也,桁楊者相推也,刑戮者相望也,而儒、墨乃始離跂攘臂乎桎梏之間。意!甚矣哉!其無愧而不知恥也甚矣!吾未知聖知之不為桁楊椄槢也,仁義之不為桎梏、鑿枘也,焉知曾、史之不為桀、跖嚆矢也!故曰:『絕聖棄知而天下大治。』」
Letting Be, and Exercising...:
Cui Ji asked Lao Dan, saying, 'If you do not govern the world, how can you make men's minds good?' The reply was, 'Take care how you meddle with and disturb men's minds. The mind, if pushed about, gets depressed; if helped forward, it gets exalted. Now exalted, now depressed, here it appears as a prisoner, and there as a wrathful fury. (At one time) it becomes pliable and soft, yielding to what is hard and strong; (at another), it is sharp as the sharpest corner, fit to carve or chisel (stone or jade). Now it is hot as a scorching fire, and anon it is cold as ice. It is so swift that while one is bending down and lifting up his head, it shall twice have put forth a soothing hand beyond the four seas. Resting, it is still as a deep abyss; moving, it is like one of the bodies in the sky; in its resolute haughtiness, it refuses to be bound - such is the mind of man!'
Anciently, Huang-Di was the first to meddle with and disturb the mind of man with his benevolence and righteousness. After him, Yao and Shun wore their thighs bare and the hair off the calves of their legs, in their labours to nourish the bodies of the people. They toiled painfully with all the powers in their five viscera at the practice of their benevolence and righteousness; they tasked their blood and breath to make out a code of laws - and after all they were unsuccessful. On this Yao sent away Huan Dou to Chong hill, and (the Chiefs of) the Three Miao to San-wei, and banished the Minister of Works to the Dark Capital; so unequal had they been to cope with the world. Then we are carried on to the kings of the Three (dynasties), when the world was in a state of great distraction. Of the lowest type of character there were Jie and Zhi; of a higher type there were Zeng (Shen) and Shi (Qiu). At the same time there arose the classes of the Literati and the Mohists. Hereupon, complacency in, and hatred of, one another produced mutual suspicions; the stupid and the wise imposed on one another; the good and the bad condemned one another; the boastful and the sincere interchanged their recriminations - and the world fell into decay. Views as to what was greatly virtuous did not agree, and the nature with its endowments became as if shrivelled by fire or carried away by a flood. All were eager for knowledge, and the people were exhausted with their searchings (after what was good). On this the axe and the saw were brought into play; guilt was determined as by the plumb-line and death inflicted; the hammer and gouge did their work. The world fell into great disorder, and presented the appearance of a jagged mountain ridge. The crime to which all was due was the meddling with and disturbing men's minds. The effect was that men of ability and worth lay concealed at the foot of the crags of mount Tai, and princes of ten thousand chariots were anxious and terrified in their ancestral temples. In the present age those who have been put to death in various ways lie thick as if pillowed on each other; those who are wearing the cangue press on each other (on the roads); those who are suffering the bastinado can see each other (all over the land). And now the Literati and the Mohists begin to stand, on tiptoe and with bare arms, among the fettered and manacled crowd! Ah! extreme is their shamelessness, and their failure to see the disgrace! Strange that we should be slow to recognise their sageness and wisdom in the bars of the cangue, and their benevolence and righteousness in the rivets of the fetters and handcuffs! How do we know that Zeng and Shi are not the whizzing arrows of Jie and Zhi? Therefore it is said, 'Abolish sageness and cast away knowledge, and the world will be brought to a state of great order.'

3 在宥:
黃帝立為天子十九年,令行天下,聞廣成子在於空同之上,故往見之,曰:「我聞吾子達於至道,敢問至道之精。吾欲取天地之精,以佐五穀,以養民人;吾又欲官陰陽,以遂群生。為之奈何?」廣成子曰:「而所欲問者,物之質也;而所欲官者,物之殘也。自而治天下,雲氣不待族而雨,草木不待黃而落,日月之光益以荒矣。而佞人之心翦翦者,又奚足以語至道!」黃帝退,捐天下,築特室,席白茅,閒居三月,復往邀之。廣成子南首而臥,黃帝順下風膝行而進,再拜稽首而問曰:「聞吾子達於至道,敢問治身奈何而可以長久?」廣成子蹶然而起,曰:「善哉問乎!來!吾語女至道。至道之精,窈窈冥冥;至道之極,昏昏默默。無視無聽,抱神以靜,形將自正。必靜必清,無勞女形,無搖女精,乃可以長生。目無所見,耳無所聞,心無所知,女神將守形,形乃長生。慎女內,閉女外,多知為敗。我為女遂於大明之上矣,至彼至陽之原也;為女入於窈冥之門矣,至彼至陰之原也。天地有官,陰陽有藏,慎守女身,物將自壯。我守其一,以處其和,故我修身千二百歲矣,吾形未嘗衰。」黃帝再拜稽首曰:「廣成子之謂天矣!」廣成子曰:「來!吾語女。彼其物無窮,而人皆以為有終;彼其物無測,而人皆以為有極。得吾道者,上為皇而下為王;失吾道者,上見光而下為土。今夫百昌,皆生於土而反於土,故余將去女,入無窮之門,以遊無極之野。吾與日月參光,吾與天地為常。當我,緡乎!遠我,昏乎!人其盡死,而我獨存乎!」
Letting Be, and Exercising...:
Huang-Di had been on the throne for nineteen years, and his ordinances were in operation all through the kingdom, when he heard that Guang Cheng-zi was living on the summit of Kong-tong, and went to see him. 'I have heard,' he said, 'that you, Sir, are well acquainted with the perfect Dao. I venture to ask you what is the essential thing in it. I wish to take the subtlest influences of heaven and earth, and assist with them the (growth of the) five cereals for the (better) nourishment of the people. I also wish to direct the (operation of the) Yin and Yang, so as to secure the comfort of all living beings. How shall I proceed to accomplish those objects?' Kong Tong-zi replied, 'What you wish to ask about is the original substance of all things; what you wish to have the direction of is that substance as it was shattered and divided. According to your government of the world, the vapours of the clouds, before they were collected, would descend in rain; the herbs and trees would shed their leaves before they became yellow; and the light of the sun and moon would hasten to extinction. Your mind is that of a flatterer with his plausible words - it is not fit that I should tell you the perfect Dao.'
Huang-Di withdrew, gave up (his government of) the kingdom, built himself a solitary apartment, spread in it a mat of the white m?o grass, dwelt in it unoccupied for three months, and then went again to seek an interview with (the recluse). Kong Tong-zi was then lying down with his head to the south. Huang-Di, with an air of deferential submission, went forward on his knees, twice bowed low with his face to the ground, and asked him, saying, 'I have heard that you, Sir, are well acquainted with the perfect Dao - I venture to ask how I should rule my body, in order that it may continue for a long time.' Kong Tong-zi hastily rose, and said, 'A good question! Come and I will tell you the perfect Dao. Its essence is (surrounded with) the deepest obscurity; its highest reach is in darkness and silence. There is nothing to be seen; nothing to be heard. When it holds the spirit in its arms in stillness, then the bodily form of itself will become correct. You must be still; you must be pure; not subjecting your body to toil, not agitating your vital force - then you may live for long. When your eyes see nothing, your ears hear nothing, and your mind knows nothing, your spirit will keep your body, and the body will live long. Watch over what is within you, shut up the avenues that connect you with what is external - much knowledge is pernicious. I (will) proceed with you to the summit of the Grand Brilliance, where we come to the source of the bright and expanding (element); I will enter with you the gate of the Deepest Obscurity, where we come to the source of the dark and repressing (element). There heaven and earth have their controllers; there the Yin and Yang have their Repositories. Watch over and keep your body, and all things will of themselves give it vigour. I maintain the (original) unity (of these elements), and dwell in the harmony of them. In this way I have cultivated myself for one thousand and two hundred years, and my bodily form has undergone no decay.'
Huang-Di twice bowed low with his head to the ground, and said, 'In Kong Tong-zi we have an example of what is called Heaven.' The other said, 'Come, and I will tell you: (The perfect Dao) is something inexhaustible, and yet men all think it has an end; it is something unfathomable, and yet men all think its extreme limit can be reached. He who attains to my Dao, if he be in a high position, will be one of the August ones, and in a low position, will be a king. He who fails in attaining it, in his highest attainment will see the light, but will descend and be of the Earth. At present all things are produced from the Earth and return to the Earth. Therefore I will leave you, and enter the gate of the Unending, to enjoy myself in the fields of the Illimitable. I will blend my light with that of the sun and moon, and will endure while heaven and earth endure. If men agree with my views, I will be unconscious of it; if they keep far apart from them, I will be unconscious of it; they may all die, and I will abide alone!'

4 在宥:
雲將東遊,過扶搖之枝,而適遭鴻蒙。鴻蒙方將拊髀雀躍而遊。雲將見之,倘然止,贄然立,曰:「叟何人邪?叟何為此?」鴻蒙拊髀雀躍不輟,對雲將曰:「遊。」雲將曰:「朕願有問也。」鴻蒙仰而視雲將曰:「吁!」雲將曰:「天氣不合,地氣鬱結,六氣不調,四時不節。今我願合六氣之精,以育群生,為之奈何?」鴻蒙拊髀雀躍掉頭曰:「吾弗知,吾弗知。」雲將不得問。又三年,東遊,過有宋之野,而適遭鴻蒙。雲將大喜,行趨而進曰:「天忘朕邪?天忘朕邪?」再拜稽首,願聞於鴻蒙。鴻蒙曰:「浮游不知所求,猖狂不知所往,遊者鞅掌,以觀無妄,朕又何知!」雲將曰:「朕也自以為猖狂,而百姓隨予所往;朕也不得已於民,今則民之放也。願聞一言。」鴻蒙曰:「亂天之經,逆物之情,玄天弗成;解獸之群,而鳥皆夜鳴;災及草木,禍及止蟲。意!治人之過也!」雲將曰:「然則吾奈何?」鴻蒙曰:「意!毒哉!僊僊乎歸矣!」雲將曰:「吾遇天難,願聞一言。」鴻蒙曰:「意!心養。汝徒處無為,而物自化。墮爾形體,吐爾聰明;倫與物忘,大同乎涬溟;解心釋神,莫然無魂。萬物云云,各復其根,各復其根而不知。渾渾沌沌,終身不離;若彼知之,乃是離之。無問其名,無闚其情,物故自生。」雲將曰:「天降朕以德,示朕以默,躬身求之,乃今也得。」再拜稽首,起辭而行。
Letting Be, and Exercising...:
Yun Jiang, rambling to the east, having been borne along on a gentle breeze, suddenly encountered Hong Mang, who was rambling about, slapping his buttocks and hopping like a bird. Amazed at the sight, Yun Jiang stood reverentially, and said to the other, 'Venerable Sir, who are you? and why are you doing this ?' Hong Mang went on slapping his buttocks and hopping like a bird, but replied, 'I am enjoying myself.' Yun Jiang said, 'I wish to ask you a question.' Hong Mang lifted up his head, looked at the stranger, and said, 'Pooh!' Yun Jiang, however, continued, 'The breath of heaven is out of harmony; the breath of earth is bound up; the six elemental influences do not act in concord; the four seasons do not observe their proper times. Now I wish to blend together the essential qualities of those six influences in order to nourish all living things - how shall I go about it?' Hong Mang slapped his buttocks, hopped about, and shook his head, saying, 'I do not know; I do not know!'
Yun Jiang could not pursue his question; but three years afterwards, when (again) rambling in the east, as he was passing by the wild of Sung, he happened to meet Hong Mang. Delighted with the rencontre, he hastened to him, and said, 'Have you forgotten me, 0 Heaven? Have you forgotten me, 0 Heaven?' At the same time, he bowed twice with his head to the ground, wishing to receive his instructions. Hong Mang said, 'Wandering listlessly about, I know not what I seek; carried on by a wild impulse, I know not where I am going. I wander about in the strange manner (which you have seen), and see that nothing proceeds without method and order - what more should I know?' Yun Jiang replied, 'I also seem carried on by an aimless influence, and yet the people follow me wherever I go. I cannot help their doing so. But now as they thus imitate me, I wish to hear a word from you (in the case).' The other said, 'What disturbs the regular method of Heaven, comes into collision with the nature of things, prevents the accomplishment of the mysterious (operation of) Heaven, scatters the herds of animals, makes the birds all sing at night, is calamitous to vegetation, and disastrous to all insects - all this is owing, I conceive, to the error of governing men.' 'What then,' said Yun Jiang, 'shall I do?' 'Ah,' said the other, 'you will only injure them! I will leave you in my dancing way, and return to my place.' Yun Jiang rejoined, 'It has been a difficult thing to get this meeting with you, 0 Heaven! I should like to hear from you a word (more).' Hong Mang said, 'Ah! your mind (needs to be) nourished. Do you only take the position of doing nothing, and things will of themselves become transformed. Neglect your body; cast out from you your power of hearing and sight; forget what you have in common with things; cultivate a grand similarity with the chaos of the plastic ether; unloose your mind; set your spirit free; be still as if you had no soul. Of all the multitude of things every one returns to its root. Every one returns to its root, and does not know (that it is doing so). They all are as in the state of chaos, and during all their existence they do not leave it. If they knew (that they were returning to their root), they would be (consciously) leaving it. They do not ask its name; they do not seek to spy out their nature; and thus it is that things come to life of themselves.'
Yun Jiang said, 'Heaven, you have conferred on me (the knowledge of) your operation, and revealed to me the mystery of it. All my life I had been seeking for it, and now I have obtained it.' He then bowed twice, with his head to the ground, arose, took his leave, and walked away.

5 在宥:
世俗之人,皆喜人之同乎己,而惡人之異於己也。同於己而欲之、異於己而不欲者,以出乎眾為心也。夫以出於眾為心者,曷嘗出乎眾哉!因眾以寧所聞,不如眾技眾矣。而欲為人之國者,此攬乎三王之利,而不見其患者也。此以人之國僥倖也,幾何僥倖而不喪人之國乎!其存人之國也,無萬分之一;而喪人之國也,一不成而萬有餘喪矣。悲夫!有土者之不知也!
Letting Be, and Exercising...:
The ordinary men of the world all rejoice in men's agreeing with themselves, and dislike men's being different from themselves. This rejoicing and this dislike arise from their being bent on making themselves distinguished above all others. But have they who have this object at heart so risen out above all others? They depend on them to rest quietly (in the position which they desire), and their knowledge is not equal to the multitude of the arts of all those others! When they wish again to administer a state for its ruler, they proceed to employ all the methods which the kings of the three dynasties considered profitable without seeing the evils of such a course. This is to make the state depend on the peradventure of their luck. But how seldom it is that that peradventure does not issue in the ruin of the state! Not once in ten thousand instances will such men preserve a state. Not once will they succeed, and in more than ten thousand cases will they ruin it. Alas that the possessors of territory (the rulers of states) should not know the danger (of employing such men)!
夫有土者,有大物也。有大物者,不可以物物;而不物,故能物物。明乎物物者之非物也,豈獨治天下百姓而已哉!出入六合,遊乎九州,獨往獨來,是謂獨有。獨有之人,是謂至貴。
Now the possessors of territory possess the greatest of (all) things. Possessing the greatest of all things (possessing, that is, men) they should not try to deal with them as (simply) things. And it is he who is not a thing (himself) that is therefore able to deal with (all) things as they severally require. When (a ruler) clearly understands that he who should so deal with all things is not a thing himself, will he only rule the kingdom? He will go out and in throughout the universe (at his pleasure); he will roam over the nine regions, alone in going, alone in coming. Him we call the sole possessor (of this ability); and the sole possessor (of this ability) is what is called the noblest of all.
大人之教,若形之於影,聲之於響。有問而應之,盡其所懷,為天下配。處乎無響,行乎無方。挈汝適復之撓撓,以遊無端,出入無旁,與日無始,頌論形軀,合乎大同,大同而無己。無己,惡乎得有有!睹有者,昔之君子;睹無者,天地之友。
The teaching of (this) great man goes forth as the shadow from the substance, as the echo responds to the sound. When questioned, he responds, exhausting (from his own stores) all that is in the (enquirer's) mind, as if front to front with all under heaven. His resting-place gives forth no sound; his sphere of activity has no restriction of place, He conducts every one to his proper goal, proceeding to it and bringing him back to it as by his own movement. His movements have no trace; his going forth and his re-enterings have no deviation; his course is like that of the sun without beginning (or ending). If you would praise or discourse about his personality, he is united with the great community of existences. He belongs to that great community, and has no individual self. Having no individual self, how should he have anything that can be called his? If you look at those who have what they call their own, they are the superior men of former times; if you look at him who has nothing of the kind, he is the friend of heaven and earth.

6 在宥:
賤而不可不任者,物也;卑而不可不因者,民也;匿而不可不為者,事也;麤而不可不陳者,法也;遠而不可不居者,義也;親而不可不廣者,仁也;節而不可不積者,禮也;中而不可不高者,德也;一而不可不易者,道也;神而不可不為者,天也。故聖人觀於天而不助,成於德而不累,出於道而不謀,會於仁而不恃,薄於義而不積,應於禮而不諱,接於事而不辭,齊於法而不亂,恃於民而不輕,因於物而不去。物者莫足為也,而不可不為。不明於天者,不純於德;不通於道者,無自而可。不明於道者,悲夫!
Letting Be, and Exercising...:
Mean, and yet demanding to be allowed their free course - such are Things. Low, and yet requiring to be relied on - such are the People. Hidden (as to their issues), and yet requiring to be done - such are Affairs. Coarse, and yet necessary to be set forth - such are Laws. Remote, and yet necessary to have dwelling (in one's self) - such is Righteousness. Near, and yet necessary to be widely extended - such is Benevolence. Restrictive, and yet necessary to be multiplied - such are Ceremonies. Lodged in the centre, and yet requiring to be exalted - such is Virtue. Always One, and yet requiring to be modified - such is the Dao. Spiritlike, and yet requiring to be exercised - such is Heaven.
Therefore the sages contemplated Heaven, but did not assist It. They tried to perfect their virtue, but did not allow it to embarrass them. They proceeded according to the Dao, but did not lay any plans. They associated benevolence (with all their doings), but did not rely on it. They pursued righteousness extensively, but did not try to accumulate it. They responded to ceremonies, but did not conceal (their opinion as to the troublesomeness of them). They engaged in affairs as they occurred, and did not decline them. They strove to render their laws uniform, but (feared that confusion) might arise from them. They relied upon the people, and did not set light by them. They depended on things as their instruments, and did not discard them.
They did not think things equal to what they employed them for, but yet they did not see that they could do without employing them. Those who do not understand Heaven are not pure in their virtue. Those who do not comprehend the Dao have no course which they can pursue successfully. Alas for them who do not clearly understand the Dao!
何謂道?有天道,有人道。無為而尊者,天道也;有為而累者,人道也。主者,天道也;臣者,人道也。天道之與人道也,相去遠矣,不可不察也。
What is it that we call the Dao? There is the Dao, or Way of Heaven; and there is the Dao, or Way of Man. Doing nothing and yet attracting all honour is the Way of Heaven; Doing and being embarrassed thereby is the Way of Man. It is the Way of Heaven that plays the part of the Lord; it is the Way of Man that plays the part of the Servant. The Way of Heaven and the Way of Man are far apart. They should be clearly distinguished from each other.

URN: ctp:zhuangzi/letting-be-and-exercising-forbearance