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《境內 - Within the Borders》

English translation: J. J. L. Duyvendak [?]
Books referencing 《境內》 Library Resources
1 境內:
Within the Borders:
Within the four frontiers, men and women are known by name to their superiors; at birth they are registered and at death they are erased. Those who have rank ask of those who have no rank to act as bodyguard; for each degree the service of one man is requested. When they have no military service, the bodyguards serve their great officers six days in the month; in times of military service, they follow their great officers and are fed by them.

2 境內:
Within the Borders:
The military ranks from the first degree down to the small prefects are called xiao, tu, cao, shi; the public ranks from the second degree upwards to the degree of bu-geng are called military officials, zu. In battle five men are organized into a squad; if one of them is killed, the other four are beheaded. If a man can capture one head then he is exempted from taxes. For every five men is there a corporal, tun-chang, and for every hundred men a centurion, chiang. If in a battle the centurions and corporals are unsuccessful, they are beheaded; if they are successful, thirty-three heads or more are accounted ample, and to the centurions and corporals one degree in rank is given. An officer of 500 men has 50 swordsmen with short weapons; an officer of twice 500 men, in commanding them has 100 swordsmen; a prefect with an income of 1,000 piculs of grain has 100 swordsmen; a prefect with an income of 800 piculs of grain has 80 swordsmen; one with 700 piculs has 70 swordsmen; one with 600 piculs has 60 swordsmen; the guo-wei has 1,000 swordsmen, and the general has 4,000 swordsmen. If in a battle, it comes so far that he is killed, then the swordsmen are beheaded. If a man can capture one head, he is exempted from taxes.

3 境內:
Within the Borders:
If in attacking a city or besieging a town they can capture 8,000 heads or more, it is accounted ample; if in a battle in the open field they take 2,000 heads, it is accounted ample. From the cao officers up to xiao officers, the great general fully rewards the officers in the ranks. He who was formerly gong-shi is promoted to shang-zao; a shang-zao to zan-niao; a zan-niao to bu-geng; a bu-geng to great officer, da-fu. When an officer is raised to the rank of a district commander, hsien-wei, then he is presented with six prisoner-slaves, and provided with 5,000 soldiers and an income of 600 piculs of grain; da-fu are raised to the rank of guo-wei; one who was formerly a da-fu is promoted to gong-da-fu; a gong-da-fu to gong-sheng; a gong-sheng to wu-da-fu, and then receives a tax-paying city of 300 families. A former wu-da-fu is promoted to shu-zhang: a shu-zhang to a zuo-keng; one of the three kengs to a da-liang-zao. In all these cases there is presented a town of 300 families, or the taxes of three hundred families. Where there is a tax-paying town of six hundred families, an office of vice-chancellor is conferred. Those who ride in the company of the great general are all promoted three degrees. He who was formerly assistant chancellor, when he is accounted to have the full merit, is promoted to the actual chancellorship.

4 境內:
Within the Borders:
When three heads are captured in battle, they are exposed for three days; the general confers, in the cases where there is no doubt that it is deserved, the titles of shi and da-fu in reward. When the heads have been hanging for three days and no titles of shi or da-fu have been conferred on any one in reward, then they are removed. The four wei of a district are under the critical supervision of a cheng-wei. If he succeeds in capturing the head of a man of rank, he receives one qing of land and nine mu of estate, apart from the conferment of one degree of rank and a bodyguard for each rank, and he is allowed to enter amongst the military officers. In case of transgression of the law, then those of higher rank criticize those of lower rank and degree. If a man of high rank has been cashiered, he may not be given as servant to a man of rank. Those holding rank from the second degree upwards, in case of an offence, are degraded; those holding rank not higher than the first degree, when guilty of an offence, lose it. At the death of a xiao-fu up to a da-fu, coffins should be of a different kind for each degree, and the number of trees on the graves should be one for each degree in rank.

5 境內:
Within the Borders:
In attacking a city or besieging a town, the minister of public works of the state examines critically the size and resources of that city. The guo-wei assigns the places, dividing the area according to the number of tu and xiao officers for the attack, and he sets them a time-limit, saying: 'Those who are first will be rewarded as the vanguard and those who hold back will be reprimanded, as being in the rear, and on a second reprimand will be dismissed.' They dig out subterranean passages and pile up fuel; when the fuel has been piled up they set fire to the beams. From the corps of sappers, on each side of the town, there are eighteen men. The soldiers from the corps of sappers, if they know how to fight fiercely, although they cannot capture the heads of any men in the ranks, are rewarded with one degree for each man; for every one man that is killed, freedom from taxes is given, and for every one man that cannot fight to the death, ten are torn to pieces by chariots. Those who make critical remarks are branded or their noses are sliced off under the city wall. The guo-wei, in assigning their various places to all, cause the several detachments to be followed by zhong-zu. The general erects a wooden platform, wherefrom, together with the Chief Supervisor of the state and the Chief Secretary, he watches (the battle). Those who enter first are rewarded as men of the vanguard, and those who enter last are treated as men of the rearguard; as to the corps of sappers, the utmost use is made of their few men; if these few men are not sufficient, they are supplemented by those who are anxious to receive a rank.

URN: ctp:shang-jun-shu/within-the-borders