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Chinese Text Project
Simplified Chinese version

U+4E4E

Seal script

Jinwen

Jiaguwen

Semantic variant

Radical:丿+ 4 strokes = 5 strokes total.
References:Guangyun: p.81#23 Kangxi: p.82#07 Cihai: p.47r3c03 GSR: 55.a Hanyu: v1,p0036#08
Composition:Component of: 𬼡 𫍞 𠇼 𠓧 𤝘 𫼞 𡛚 𣧯 𤇠 𢨽 𤵡 𬏃 𮎇 [More]
Mandarin: ㄏㄨ ㄏㄨˊ
Cantonese:fu1 fu4 wu4
Tang reconstruction:ho
Shuowen:兮部》乎:语之馀也。从兮,象声上越扬之形也。
Guangyun:广韵·上平声··》乎:极也,辝也。
Kangxi:康熙字典·丿部·》乎:〔古文〕宓《广韵》戸吴切《集韵》《韵会》《正韵》洪孤切,𠀤音湖。《说文》兮语之馀也。从兮,象声上越扬之形。《徐曰》凡名兮皆上句之馀声。《广韵》极也。又疑辞。《·邶风》胡爲乎中露。《战国策》弹铗归来乎。又呼声。如鲁论,参乎,使乎之类。又荒乌切。与呼同。《·大雅》于乎小子。《陆德明·音义》于音乌,乎音呼。《吴越春秋》越王夫人歌曰:徊复翔兮,游飇去复反兮。于乎,今经史于戏,于宓,呜宓,呜嘑,于乎相通,皆叹辞。
Fanqie:戸吴 (《广韵·上平声··》)
Equivalent readings: (《四书章句集注·中庸章句·中庸章句》)
Unihan definition:interrogative or exclamatory final particle

CTP Dictionary


ㄏㄨ (1.1): 语气词:表示疑问或反问,相当于“吗”或“呢”。 Modal particle expressing questioning or a rhetorical question.
墨子·小取》:此与彼同类,世有彼而不自非也,墨者有此而非之,无他故5焉,所谓内胶外闭与心毋空
This and those are of the same kind; the world have those and don't oppose themselves, [yet] we Mohists have this and they oppose us. There can be no other reason than that they are stopped up within and closed without; their heart-minds are all filled in!
论语·学而》:子曰:“学而时习之,不亦说?”
The Master said, "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?"
孟子·梁惠王上》:王曰:“叟不远千里而来,亦将有以利吾国?”
The king said, 'Venerable sir, since you have not counted it far to come here, a distance of a thousand li, may I presume that you are provided with counsels to profit my kingdom?'
庄子·逍遥游》:而我犹代子,吾将为名
If I in these circumstances take your place, shall I not be doing so for the sake of the name?
史记·夏本纪》:吾言砥可行
Are my words sound, and can they be put in force?
礼记·曲礼上》:今人而无礼,虽能言,不亦禽兽之心
Here now is a man who observes no rules of propriety; is not his heart that of a beast?
ㄏㄨ (1.2): 语气词:表示赞美或感叹,相当于“啊”或“呀”。 Modal particle expressing admiration or exclamation.
论语·八佾》:知其说者之于天下也,其如示诸斯
He who knew its meaning would find it as easy to govern the kingdom as to look on this
孟子·梁惠王下》:孟子曰:“王之好乐甚,则齐国其庶几!”
Mencius replied, 'If the king's love of music were very great, the kingdom of Qi would be near to a state of good government!'
史记·淮阴侯列传》:时,不再来。
说苑·尊贤》:伯牙子鼓琴,锺子期听之,方鼓而志在太山,锺子期曰:“善哉鼓琴!”
吕氏春秋·本味》:伯牙鼓琴,锺子期听之,方鼓琴而志在太山,锺子期曰:“善哉鼓琴,巍巍若太山。”
ㄏㄨ (1.3): 语气词:表示推测,相当于“吧”或“呀”。 Modal particle expressing estimation.
春秋左传》:宋其亡,幸而后败。
战国策》:曰:“日食饮得无衰?”
ㄏㄨ (1.4): 语气词:表示祈使或命令,相当于“吧” Modal particle expressing request or order.
春秋左传》:勉速行
战国策》:居有顷,倚柱弹其剑,歌曰:“长铗归来!”
ㄏㄨ (1.5): 语气词:表示呼告,相当于“啊” Modal particle expressing calling.
论语·里仁》:子曰:“参!”
The Master said, "Shen."
礼记·仲尼燕居》:子张问政,子曰:“师!”
Zi-gong asked about government. The Master said, 'Shi.'
ㄏㄨ (1.6): 语气词:表示商权。 Modal particle expressing consideration.
韩非子·显学》:故孔子曰:“以容取人,失之子羽。”
ㄏㄨ (1.7): 语气词:表示肯定,相当于“也”。 Modal particle expressing affirmation.
韩非子·解老》:有争则乱,故曰:“礼者,忠信之薄也,而乱之首。”
列子·周穆王》:孔子曰:“此非汝所及!”
ㄏㄨ (2.1): 助词:用于形容词之后。 Particle used after adjectives.
战国策》:游于江海,淹乎大沼,府噣鳝鲤,仰啮菱衡,奋其六翮,而凌清风,飘摇高翔,自以为无患,与人无争也。
ㄏㄨ (2.2): 助词:用于句中表示停顿。 Particle used in the middle of a sentence to express a pause.
论语·雍也》:子曰:“由也果,于从政何有?”
The Master said, "You is a man of decision; what difficulty would he find in being an officer of government?"
楚辞·离骚经》:冀枝叶之峻茂兮,愿竢时吾将刈。
ㄏㄨ (3): 介词:相当于“于”。 Preposition: in, from, to.
论语·学而》:夫子之求之也,其诸异人之求之与?
The master's mode of asking information! - is it not different from that of other men?
庄子·齐物论》:啮缺问王倪曰:“子知物之所同是乎?”
Nie Que asked Wang Ni, saying, 'Do you know, Sir, what all creatures agree in approving and affirming?'
史记》:于斯之时,天下大说,向风而听,随流而化,喟然兴道而迁义,刑错而不用,德隆三皇,功羡于五帝。
列子·黄帝》:颜回问仲尼曰:“吾尝济乎觞深之渊矣,津人操舟若神。”
战国策》:游于江海,淹大沼,府噣鳝鲤,仰啮菱衡,奋其六翮,而凌清风,飘摇乎高翔,自以为无患,与人无争也。

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